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Advanced Microcontrollers

EC 38105



By
Prof. Kanade D.G.
What you learn?
Features of PIC 18Fxx8
PIC 18Fxx8 architecture
Addressing Modes
Instruction Set
On chip Peripherals
Programming PIC Microcontroller
ARM 7 Processor basics
Addressing Modes & Instruction set
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What is PIC Microcontroller?
In 1989 Microchip Technology Corp.
introduced 8-bit microcontroller called PIC.
PIC-Peripheral Interface Controller.
8 Pin Microcontroller
Small amount of RAM
Hundred bytes of on chip ROM
One Timer
Few pins for I/O
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What is PIC Microcontroller?
Is leading supplier of 8 bit microcontroller.
PIC 8 bit microcontroller families
10xxx
12xxx
16xxx
17xxx
18xxx
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PIC microcontroller?
Not 100% upward compatible.
PIC 12xxx/16xxx have 12 bit and 14 bit wide
instructions and PIC 18xxx has 16 bit wide
instructions.

No 8 pin version of PIC 18xxx exists.



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PIC18F Microcontrollers
Microcontroller Unit (MCU)
Microprocessor unit (MPU)
Harvard Architecture
Program memory for instructions
Data memory for data
I/O ports
Support devices such as timers
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Microcontroller Unit
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PIC18F MPU and Memory
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Microprocessor Unit
Includes Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU),
Registers, and Control Unit
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Instruction decoder
16-bit instructions
Status register that stores flags
5-bits
WREG working register
8-bit accumulator
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Microprocessor Unit
Registers
Program Counter (PC)
21-bit register that holds the Program Memory address
Bank Select Register (BSR)
4-bit register used in direct addressing the Data Memory

File Select Registers (FSRs)
12-bit registers used as memory pointers in indirect
addressing Data Memory
Control unit
Provides timing and control signals
Read and Write operations
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PIC18F - Address Buses
Address bus
21-bit address bus for Program Memory
Addressing capacity: 2 MB
12-bit address bus for Data Memory
Addressing capacity: 4 KB
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Data Bus and Control Signals
Data bus
16-bit instruction/data bus for Program Memory
8-bit data bus for Data Memory
Control signals
Read and Write
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Features of 18Fxx8
High-Performance RISC CPU:
Linear program memory addressing up to 2 Mbytes
Linear data memory addressing to 4 Kbytes
Up to 10 MIPS operation
DC 40 MHz clock input
4 MHz-10 MHz oscillator/clock input with PLL active
16-bit wide instructions, 8-bit wide data path
Priority levels for interrupts
8 x 8 Single-Cycle Hardware Multiplier
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Peripheral Features:
High current sink/source 25 mA/25 mA
Three external interrupt pins
Timer0module: 8-bit/16-bit timer/counter with 8-bit
programmable prescaler
Timer1module: 16-bit timer/counter
Timer2module: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period
register (time base for PWM)
Timer3module: 16-bit timer/counter
Secondary oscillator clock option Timer1/Timer3
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules
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Features of 18Fxx8
Peripheral Features
Enhanced CCP module
Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) with two
modes of operation:
3-wire SPI (Supports all 4 SPI modes)
- I2C Master and Slave mode
Addressable USART module
CAN bus Module


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Features of 18Fxx8
Advanced Analog Features:
10-bit, up to 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter
module (A/D) with:
Conversion available during Sleep
Analog Comparator module:
Programmable input and output multiplexing
Comparator Voltage Reference module
Programmable Low-Voltage Detection (LVD) module:
Supports interrupt-on-Low-Voltage Detection
Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR)
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Features of 18Fxx8
Special Microcontroller Features:
Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up Timer (PWRT) and
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC
oscillator
Programmable code protection
Power-saving Sleep mode
Selectable oscillator options, including:
4x Phase Lock Loop (PLL) of primary oscillator
Secondary Oscillator (32 kHz) clock input
In-Circuit Serial ProgrammingTM (ICSPTM) via two pins
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Features of 18Fxx8
Flash Technology:
Low-power, high-speed Enhanced Flash technology
Fully static design
Wide operating voltage range (2.0V to 5.5V)
Industrial and Extended temperature ranges
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Features of 18Fxx8
PIC 18F458 Memory
Program Memory: 32 K flash
Address range: 000000 to 007FFF
H
Data Memory : 1536 Bytes
Address range: 000 to 5FF
H
Data EEPROM
256 Bytes
Not part of the data memory space
Addressed through special function registers
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PIC 18Fxx8 Memory
Program Memory
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PIC 18Fxx8
Data
Memory
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Access Bank
The Access Bank is comprised of the
Upper 160 bytes in Bank 15 (SFRs) and
Lower 96 bytes in Bank 0.
These two sections will be referred to as
Access Bank High and Access Bank Low,
respectively.
Minimum bank switching
Used to store data & parameters by
programmer and c compilers

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Using Access Bank
MOVWF f, a
If a=0 access bank will be selected
If a=1 BSR3:0 is used for selecting one of the
16 banks.

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Working Register
W- working register-8 bit
Similar to accumulator
Used in arithmetic and logical operations
MOVLW 0xff
ADDLW 0x56
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Status Register
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X X X N ov Z DC C
Direct Addressing Mode
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Direct Addressing Mode
To copy file register 0x100 to W( working
register)
MOVLB 0x01
MOVWF 0x00
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Indirect Addressing
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Indirect Addressing
Three FSR (File Select Register)-12 bit register
FSR0, FSR1, FSR2
INDF0, INDF1, INDF2
To copy W register to file register 0x249
LFSR 0,0x249
MOVWF INDF0
Will copy the contents of W register to Internal
RAM pointed by the contents of FSR0.
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PIC 18FXX8 I/O Ports
Five I/O ports
PORT A through PORT E
Most I/O pins are multiplexed
Generally have eight I/O pins
Addresses already assigned to these ports
Each port is identified by its assigned SFR
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I/O Ports A and B
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MCU Support Devices
Timers
Capture, Compare and PWM (CCP Modules)
Serial Communications
Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP)
Addressable USART
A/D converter
Parallel Slave Port (PSP)
Data EEPROM
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MCU Support Devices
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PIC18F4X8
Architecture
Block Diagram
34
PIC18FXX8 Programming Model
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PIC18F Instructions
77 assembly language instructions
Earlier PIC families have 33 or 35 instructions
PIC18F instruction set
Most instructions are 16-bit word length
Four instructions are 32-bit length
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Instruction Set
OPCODE FIELD DESCRIPTIONS

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Field Operation
a RAM access bit:
a = 0: RAM location in Access RAM (BSR register is ignored)
a = 1: RAM bank is specified by BSR register
bbb Bit address within an 8-bit file register (0 to 7).
BSR Bank Select Register. Used to select the current RAM bank
d Destination select bit:
d = 0: store result in WREG
d = 1: store result in file register f
dest Destination either the WREG register or the specified register file location
f 8-bit register file address (0x00 to 0xFF).
Instruction Set
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Field Operation
fs 12-bit register file address (0x000 to 0xFFF). This is the source address.
fd 12-bit register file address (0x000 to 0xFFF). This is the destination address.
k Literal field, constant data or label (may be either an 8-bit, 12-bit or a 20-
bit value).
Label Label name.
Mm

*
*+
*-
+*
The mode of the TBLPTR register for the table read and table write
instructions. Only used with table read and table write instructions:
No change to register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
Post-Increment register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
Post-Decrement register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
Pre-Increment register (such as TBLPTR with table reads and writes)
n The relative address (2s complement number) for relative branch
instructions or the direct address for Call/Branch and Return instructions.
Instruction Set
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Field Operation
PROH Product of Multiply High Byte.
PRODL Product of Multiply Low Byte.
s Fast Call/Return mode select bit:
s = 0: do not update into/from shadow registers
s = 1: certain registers loaded into/from shadow registers (Fast mode)
u Unused or unchanged
WREG Working register (accumulator).
x Dont care (0 or 1).
The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the recommended form of
use for compatibility with all Microchip software tools.
TBLPTR 21-bit Table Pointer (points to a program memory location).
Instruction Set
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Field Operation
TABLAT 8-bit Table Latch..
TOS Top-of-Stack.
PC Program Counter
PCL Program Counter Low Byte
PCH Program Counter High Byte
PCLATH Program Counter High Byte Latch.
PCLATU Program Counter Upper Byte Latch.
GIE Global Interrupt Enable bit.
WDT Watchdog Timer.
Instruction Set
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Field Operation
TO Time-out bit.
PD Power-Down bit.
C DC Z OV N ALU status bits: Carry, Digit Carry, Zero, Overflow, Negative
[ ] Optional.
( ) Contents.
Assigned to.
PCLATU Program Counter Upper Byte Latch.
< > Register bit field.
In the set of.
italics User defined term (font is courier).
Instruction Set
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General Format For Instructions
Instruction Set
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General Format For Instructions
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Instruction Set
General Format For Instructions
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Instruction Set
General Format For Instructions
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Instruction Set
General Format For Instructions
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Instruction Set
General Format For Instructions
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Instruction Set
General Format For Instructions
Instruction Set
Byte Oriented Operations

ADDLW (all flags affected)
Syntax ADDLW k
0<k<255
W=W+k
ADDLW 15h
Before Instruction W= 10h
After Instruction W=10h+15h=25h


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Instruction Set
ADDWF Add W to f
Syntax ADDWF f, d, [a]
0<f<255
d= 0 0r 1
a= 0 or 1
W + f dest
All flags affected
Example:
ADDWF REG,0,0
Before Instruction: W= 17h, REG= 0C2h
After Instruction: W=0D9h, REG= 0C2h


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Instruction Descriptions
Copy (Move) 8-bit number (Literal) into W register
Mnemonics: MOVLW 8-bit
Binary format:
0000 1110 XXXX XXXX (any 8-bit number)
Copy (Move) contents of W register into PORTC (File)
Mnemonics: MOVWF PORTC, a
(a indicates that PORTC is in the Access Bank)
Binary format:
0110 1110 1000 0010 (82
H
is PORTC address)
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Illustrative Program
Problem statement:
Write instructions to light up alternate LEDs at
PORTC
Hardware:
PORTC
Bidirectional (input or output) port
Setup as output port for display
Logic 1 will turn on an LED
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Illustration
Interfacing LEDs to PORTC
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Illustration
Program (software)
Logic 0 to TRISC sets up PORTC as an output port
Byte 55
H
turns on alternate LEDs

MOVLW 00 ;Load W register with 0
MOVWF TRISC ;Set up PORTC as output
MOVLW 0x55 ;Byte 55
H
to turn on LEDS
MOVWF PORTC ;Turn on LEDs
SLEEP ;Power down
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Illustration
Address Hex Mnemonics Comments
000000 0E00 MOVLW 00 ;Load W with 0s
000002 6E94 MOVWF TRISC ;Set PORTC as output
000004 0E55 MOVLW 0x55 ;Load 55 to turn on LEDs
000006 6E82 MOVWF PORTC ;Turn on LEDs
000008 0003 SLEEP ;Power Down
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Illustration
Execution of the
instruction:
MOVWF PORTC
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PIC18 Simulator IDE
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Embedded System
MCU-based
System
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