Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

STEAM TURBINE

1
12/04/09
An Introduction to
Steam Turbine at Shuweihat S1 through
 An Overview of the Steam Turbine and its
subsystems
 Basic logics of some of the systems –
made easy

2
12/04/09
What will we do?
Take a look at -
 Technical Data, pictures and section
drawings - MAA
 Lube Oil System - MAV
 Control Oil System - MAX
 Gland Steam System - MAW
 Turbine Drain System – MAL
Go around the ST

3
12/04/09
What we will cover in a session
sometime later
 TSE and Margins
 STG Start Up and Shut Down
 STG controller
 Detailed discussion on Protections
 Lub Oil Purification Unit

4
12/04/09
Simple Rankine Cycle

5
12/04/09
6
12/04/09
2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection
(Condenser)
 3 to 4: Isentropic compression (Pump)
 4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply (Boiler)
 1 to 2: Isentropic expansion (Steam
turbine )

7
12/04/09
Name Plate Details
Type- M30-40

Order No - 10445 Year of Manufacture -2003

Steam Press. – 76.5 Bar Steam Temp. – 560 ºC

Speed – 50 rps Rated Capacity – 251.35 MW

Exhaust Steam Pressure – 2.8 Bar

8
12/04/09
Steam Parameter Limits
 Steam Flow – 325.44 kg/s
 Steam Pressures in Bar Absolute
Nominal Long Term Short Term
Main Steam 76.5 85.7 99.5*
Before 1st Stage 75.5 81.5 81.5
Exhaust Steam 2.23 5.0 7.0

Long Term – Upper limit with no time restriction


Short Term – Permissible instantaneous value with cumulative
duration not more than 12 hours in a year.
* - Set the safety valve so as not to exceed this value
9
12/04/09
10
12/04/09
11
12/04/09
ST Speed Sensors
-Total 6

12
12/04/09
13
12/04/09
14
12/04/09
15
12/04/09
Turbine Oil Specs
 Mineral or Synthetic oil of viscosity class
ISO VG 32 or ISO VG 46 (DIN 51 519)
 Capable of withstanding 120 ºC in
bearings and 80 ºC in the oil tank without
physical or chemical degradation.
 Hydraulic Oil – ISO-L-HM46 (DIN
51524-HLP46) capable of withstanding 70
ºC.

16
12/04/09
Hydro Safe ISO VG 32
 Non-Toxic - Biodegradable - Environmentally Friendly
Antiwear - Hydraulic Oil
 Hydro Safe ISO VG 32 is a vegetable based hydraulic fluid formulated to
meet the demand for biodegradable hydraulic oils. It is designed to minimize
environmental impact and have low environmental persistance. Hydro Safe
ISO VG 32 offers excellent antiwear performance in a wide array of hydraulic
components, and can be used as a superior replacement for conventional
petroleum oil. It exhibits good thermal and oxidative properties when
compared to other vegetable-derived products. Formulated from canola oil,
and containing biodegradable, non-toxic chemical additives. Its high
vicosity index (VI) allows outdoor operations in winter and summer without
the need for fluid changes or equipment modifications.
 Viscosity Index ASTM D-567, ASA Z11.45 is an empirical number indicating
the rate of change in viscosity of an oil within a given temperature range. A
low viscosity index signifies a relatively large change in viscosity with
temperature change, while a high viscosity index shows a relatively small
change in vicosity with temperature change. Viscosity Index cannot be used
to measure any other quality of an oil.
 The fluid is totally biodegradable, and exceeds the government criteria of
being "readily biodegradable." Readily biodegradable is defined as an
attribute of products that have a natural ability to biodgrade quickly and
completely. Once the fluid is leaked into the ground, it has the ability of
substance to be digested or consumed by naturally occurring
microorganisms present in water, air, and soil systems. Complete
biodegradability is the conversion of a substance to carbon dioxide and
water.
17
12/04/09
Steam Purity – Why ?
 Impurities can cause damage to turbine
components by - corrosion, stress
corrosion, corrosion fatigue, erosion-
corrosion.
 Deposition can cause - thermodynamic
losses, lower efficiency, upsetting of
pressure distributions, clogging of seals
and clearances

18
12/04/09
Values recommended for continuous
operation
Parameter Unit Normal Value Achievable
Value
ACC @ 25 ºC μS/cm < 0.2 0.1

Na μg/kg <5 2

Silica μg/kg < 10 5

Total Iron μg/kg < 20 5

Total Copper μg/kg <2 1

Mass weighted averaging for multiple sources. i.e. if A – conductivity


A = ∑Mi * Ai / ∑Mi 19
12/04/09
Limit Values for Start Up and cases of
deviation from values recommended
for continuous operation.
Parameter Unit Action Level Action Level 2Action Level 3 Action Level 4
1

ACC @ 25 ºC μS/cm ≥ 0.2 < 0.35 ≥ 0.35 < 0. 5 ≥ 0.5 < 1.0 ≥ 1.0

Na μg/kg ≥ 5 < 10 ≥ 10 < 15 ≥ 15 < 20 ≥ 20

Silica μg/kg ≥ 10 < 20 ≥ 20 < 40 ≥ 40 < 50 ≥ 50

Total Iron μg/kg ≥ 20 < 30 ≥ 30 < 40 ≥ 40 < 50 ≥ 50

Total Copper μg/kg ≥2<5 ≥5<8 ≥ 8 < 10 ≥ 10

Hours per event h ≤ 100 ≤ 24 ≤4 0


allowable
Cumulative time h/a ≤ 2000 ≤ 500 ≤ 80 0
per year
20
12/04/09
Output Limit During Valve Testing
 While testing the Main Steam Stop and
Control Valves with Automatic Turbine
Tester, the Turbine output should be
limited to 80%

21
12/04/09
22
12/04/09
23
12/04/09
24
12/04/09
25
12/04/09
HP Steam from
Gland steam
2 Inlet Pipes
exhauster

ESV 1

ESV & CV Drain


Safety Valve Valves
CV 1

Butterfly Flap

CV 2

ESV 2

Turbine Drain Valve

26
12/04/09
TLRI 115/52
16.5 + 5% KV, 10462 A
299 MVA, COSØ – 0.85
COLD AIR – 41 ºC

27
12/04/09
Turbine Stop & Control Valves
2 Stop and Control Valves each
 Stop and CV combined in a common body
with stems arranged at right angles
 Stop Valve – Single seat valve with integral
pilot disk. Hydraulic actuation against spring
force – will close in case of power failure to
solenoid
 CV – Tubular disk with relieving holes.
Hydraulic actuation against spring force.

28
12/04/09
Function – ESV – MAA11/12AA051

 Rapid and reliable interruption of Steam


Supply to the turbine in case of activation
of protection.
 To allow admission of steam for warm up
of the CV during cold start

29
12/04/09
Function – CV – MAA12/22AA151
 Rapid interruption of Steam Supply to the
turbine in case of activation of protection
 Allow admission of steam into turbine for
warm up during start.
 Control the speed gradient during run up to
Nominal speed
 Control the load of the steam turbine when
synchronised
30
12/04/09
Example
(Not at
S1)

31
12/04/09
32
12/04/09
ST ESV

33
12/04/09
ST CV

34
12/04/09
TURBINE EXHAUST
AND SAFETY
VALVES

35
12/04/09
HP Steam from 2 Steam Press Check Device
Inlet Pipes • 3 pressure switches – 1 of 3 Gland steam
actuation exhauster
• 2 of 3 for turbine trip through TTS
• ESV
Cyclic self test - If test1 not OK, test
stop and 1of 2 mode.
• & CV
ESV Draincheck of device allowed
Manual
Start up / Safety Valves
during turbine load operation but
Valve load < 80% CV 1

Butterfly Flap
ST Exhaust Valve – NAA50 AA001
• ST Butterfly
STExhaust
ExhaustValve valve––NAA50
Valve NAA50AA001 AA001
••• Hydraulic
Operation actuator with closing
Start Test
spring
•• Open – dp > 100 mbar and
Automatic Start by SGC
• SLC on valves NAA50
2 trip solenoid
Functions • ST,
CloseXS51
AA013/014
• Manual ––power
ST tripsupply
test by
or Safety
start from
•Safety Valve – Protects ST exhaust from too high pressure (4.0 bar) CV 2 Valve open
Turbine

trip system
command from actuated
OM
•Dump Valve – Opens when ST trips, to limit blading stress Fire Protection –
• Pilot valve NAA50AA011
hydraulic system for part
is switched
•Globe
Start-upvalve
valve– 10%
– Protects
rated blading
MS flowfrom too high temperature caused (recommended once in 6
lift testweeks)
off.
•Hydraulic
by windageoperated Safety Valve with • ESV 2 During
Closing time –ST2s,maintenance
Opening time
– –
• •• Pilot valve On – Valve
steam e.g. start up
pressure (Unitdevice
check CB Off and speed > 47.5 Hz and Exhaust can be locked in close
150s closes
•Control
steam
fluidtemp Prot
supply high)
from MAX01 positionslowly,
Turbine Drain
and 82%
seal airlimit
Valve can be2
• Control fluid by extra unit with
•system
Vent Valve – Opens during all starts at SGC ST step 21 and closes switch, switches off
provided between the 2 ringpilot
pumpsvalve+ a manual pump for
•Opening seats (80% second limit
at step 22 time
(& speed
– 2s > 9 Hz) – commissioning modification to vent out emergency
•Closing
air in the time
exhaust
– 15s
section. switch)
• Task - To separate ST exhaust 36
•Has 4 functions from Process steam header 12/04/09
Lube Oil System - MAV
 Safe Oil Supply to Bearings
 Jacking up shaft at low speeds
 Driving the hydraulic turning device
 Avoid escape of oil vapours from the
bearings and the oil tank
 Oil cooling
 Oil Purification
 Special Op mode during Fire Protn

37
12/04/09
Main Components
 Lub Oil Tank MAV10BB001
2 x 100% LOPs (~ 5.5 Bar) MAV21AP021/022
 1 x 100% EOP (~ 2.5 Bar) MAV24AP001
 2 x 100% Lift Oil Pps (~ 160 Bar) MAV24AP001
 2 x 100% Vapour Extractor fans MAV82AN001/2
2 x 100% Lub Oil Coolers
 2 x 100% Lub Oil Filters
 Thermostatic Temperature CV
 Oil Purification Unit

38
12/04/09
39
12/04/09
10MAV
10CT001
•Should be > 10 Deg C to
enable SGC Oil Supply
•SGC Oil Supply maintains
Oil Temperature
42CT001between
•High Deg
25-35 Warning
C in at > 57 Deg C
Shutdown
2v3=42FP016
•Tempby>30
Steps Starting
Deg C& - SGC ST
If 1v3 < 2.5 Bar – Warning
stopping
Release atPre-selected
step 21 LO
If 2v3 < 2.3 Bar & Speed>0.25 Hz-Turbine
Pump
Trip

If DP>0.9 Bar
-Alarm
2v3-10FL021
Auto Pump Changeover L = 1v3 < 1050 Alarm
1. If 42CP019<2.5 OR 21CP001<4.8 Bar LL= 2v3 < 1000 ST Trip &
then Auto Changeover Emg Operation/Fire
2. Electrical fault of Running Pump – Protection Activated
ACO
3. EOP will start in any Change over H= 1v3 >1150 Alarm
command HH=2v3 >1200 ST Trip

SGC Turbine Oil supply


Start Enable Condition
Oil Level 1170 – 1260 mm

40
12/04/09
35CP001 If Oil Supply Emergency Operation is triggered by following reasons
If Press < 125 Bar and 10MAV
1) Fire Protection Manual Switch is activated or detected OR CCR Push Button
Running Pump
Discharge Press < 125 2 Tank LOW LOW Level
Bar - Press Low Alarm
Also Command for Then following will be executed 6)EOP OFF Enabled
AUTO CHANGEOVER 1)CF Supply Protection OFF 7)SGC Check Oil Pumps-OFF
2)Turbine Trip 8)Lift Oil Pumps OFF & SLC OFF
3)GC Oil Supply –Manual 9)Oil Maint System OFF
4)SGC Turbine OiL Supply –OFF 10)Eop Protection ON
31CP001 5)Main LO Pumps35CT001
–Prot OFF & SLC -OFF 11)Turning Gear OFF
If Press> 180 Bar RESET
•Temp > 65 is required before Oil
–Warning 82CP001
High Warning Supply
•Temp > 70 can
DegbeC RESTARTED
& Speed Press> -5 mBar – Auto
< 0.15 Hz & TM HPS < 100 Changeover
If < 125 Bar – Low If DP>4.2 Bar Deg C then Temp TOO
Alarm -Alarm High Alarm & Lift Oil
Pump OFF

41
12/04/09
HP side Bearing & Hydro-
Motor

42
12/04/09
Thrust Pads

Journal Bearing

43
12/04/09
Outer Wheel is
connected to
HYDRO Motor
Inner Wheel
is connected
to ST shaft

ST Shaft

44
12/04/09
HYDRO Motor
Working Principle

45
12/04/09
CLUTCH
Hydro motor & ST Shaft

46
12/04/09
Manual Turning Gear Mechanism

47
12/04/09
Control Fluid System MAX

 Supply the ST ESVs, CVs and Safety


Valve actuators with high pressure control
fluid (160 Bar)
 Fast closing/opening of valves when Trip
signal actuated.
 Transmission of electrical signals from
turbine controller into hydraulic signals for
fast and accurate positioning of CVs

48
12/04/09
Main Components
 Control fluid tank MAX01BB001
 2 x 100% control fluid pps MAX01AP001/002
 2 Hydraulic accumulators MAX01BB011/012
 2 filters downstream of each pump
MAX01AT011/012
 1 Circulating oil pump MAX01AP011
 1 Control fluid cooler MAX01AC011
 Fine mesh filter d/s of cooler MAX01AT013

49
12/04/09
CT901-2v3
If CF Supply Emergency Operation is triggered by following reasons
Auto Changeover
Low
2v3 Level SwitchesC - Both Pumps
Low < 5 Deg 1) Fire Protection Manual Switch is activated orIfdetected
Press < 150 for 100 Secs then OR
Protection
1) Low OFF < 115 Bar then
2) Oil Supply Emg Operaion is triggered AUTOCHANGEOVER Command
Temp
2) Low LowDeg C Enables SGC Turbine
Valves
> 15 CONTROL FLUID SYSTEM If Discharge
01CP003 Header Press > 150 Bar &
3) Low Operation
Low Then following will be executed any for
•If Press < 150 Bar one110secs
Pump inthen
service
Any 2v3 activates ST Protection and SGC (MAX )
1)CF Supply Protection OFF OR
If Both Pumps Discharge < 105 Bar
High > 70Valves
Turbine Deg Auto Shutdown and then ST Prot TRIP
2)Turbine Trip •If Press < 110 Bar then Low Press
Pumps Prot OFF 3)CF Circulation Pump OFF Alarm
High High > 85 Deg C then ST Auto 4)SGC Turbine Valves –Auto Shutdown
Shutdown by SGC Turbine Valves SD 5)CF Pumps –Prot OFF & SLC –OFF
and Start Device- Set Point LOWERING 6)Both ESVs Prot OFF

If any two Transmitters deviation > 5


then FAULT is Generated

If DP>Max
-Alarm

SGC Turbine
Valves
Alarm Only

50
12/04/09
10MAD11 /12 CY021 / 22(mm/s)
•Alarm Casing
> 9.3 Vibrations
MAD &Bearing
MKD
•Alarm >•Trip
9.4 > 11.8
•If Deviation between two Transmitters >
•Trip > 14.9
•If Deviation
1 then FAULTtwo Transmitters >
between
1 then FAULT
Relative Shaft-Brg Vib.
Shaft Axial Position 2v3 If Speed > 45 Hz and Value > 83 μm =Alarm
+ 0.5 mm ALRAM
And Value > 130μm =High
+ 1 mm ST Prot TRIP
Fault If Deviation
between 2 transmitters >
0.09 mm

If all channels of any measurement become faulty then ST TRIP

51
12/04/09
TURBINE JOURNAL / THRUST BRGS

GENERATOR BRGS

If all channels of any measurement 1v3 > 100 Deg C -ALARM


1v3 > 90 Deg C -ALARM 52
become faulty then ST TRIP 2v3 > 110 Deg C –TRIP
2v3 > 130 Deg C –TRIP 12/04/09
DRAIN Valve before ESV GSE System
MAL09/10AA011 If > Max – Both the exhausters Prot OFF
Open-OR condition GSE SLC
1)SGC ST Step 7 Auto ON in SGC ST Step 17 & Auto OFF in Step 55
2)Speed > 47.5 Hz & Steam
Superheat Value < 20 o K
3)Superheat Value – Fault & Load
< 8 MW
Close- OR condition
1)SGC ST Step 19 or Step 55
2)Speed > 47.5 Hz & SH > 50 o K
3) SH Fault & load > 40 MW

DRAIN Valve before CV


MAL11/12AA011
Open-OR condition
1)SGC ST Step 5
2)SGC ST Step 18 & Upper Temp
Margin Value > 5 K
3)ESV & CV are Close & Speed >
47.5 Hz for 5 Hrs
Close-OR condition
DRAIN Valve after CV
1)SGC ST Step 14/26/55
DRAIN Valve Turbine casing
MAL15AA011
2)Speed > 47.5 Hz & ESV Opened
Open-ORMAL11AA011
condition
& CV Position Not Closed
Open-OR
1) SH condition
HPS Steam - Inner casing OK
& <1)20
Level
K drain LPS Turb Mon > Max1
2) ESV
2) TM HPS1Groove
or 2 Opened
< 440 &ºC SH& MS ahead
Load
< 8 MW Turbine ≤ 10 K
Close-OR
Close-OR condition
condition
1) SGC
1) SGC STST Step
Step 55 55
2) (Level
2) SH drain LPS
HPS Steam Turb
- Inner Mon OK
casing > Max1 OR IF Level drain LPS Turb Mon
& > 50(ESV
K 1 or 2 Opened & SH MS ahead 10MAL22FL001 > Max2
3) TM HPSTurbine
Groove≤>10 Negated
K))º C
450 & Load + 30 sec DRAIN Valve Turbine casing
> 8 MW MAL11AA011 will Protection53
Open and Block AP
12/04/09
Gland Steam
Extraction Points

54
12/04/09
GLAND STEAM EXHAUSTER

55
12/04/09
Thank You!

56
12/04/09