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SUSTAINABILITY IN (Analytical)

CHEMISTRY
Green Chemical Analysis
Green of Analytical Chemistry
Application of the principles of green chemistry
in analytical chemistry
12 Principles of green chemistry
1. Pollution Prevention
2. Atom Economy
3. Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis
4. Designing Safer Chemicals
5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries
6. Design for Energy Efficiency
7. Use of Renewable Feed stocks
8. Reduce Derivatives
9. Catalysis
10. Design for Degradation
11. Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention
12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention
Analytical Chemistry
The main role of analytical chemistry is to be a controlling tool or
set of tools in chemistry.
As a tool, the analytical procedures give information about chemical
substances, their occurrence in organisms, and the environment.
It has supported the development of chemical engineering and
technology for production of chemicals.
The product life-cycle analysis is impossible without the chemical
analysis of components and degradation products.
The development of the standards and specifications to be used in
industry and agriculture is strongly based on the evidence obtained
by analytical chemistry and controlled by chemical methods.
Analytical chemistry is the only way to justify the environmental
friendliness of new methods, processes, and products.

Green Chemical Analysis
The relationship between green chemistry and analytical
chemistry can be treated in two ways :
Analytical chemistry is a subject to control and justify green
chemistry.
Kimia analitik berperan menjustify apakah produk kimia atau
teknologi kimia hijau atau tidak
Analytical chemistry becomes an object of application of the principles
of green chemistry, and can be the target of a green chemistry
approach similarly to other areas of chemistry and chemical
technology.
On the other hand, chemical analysis methods need solvents,
reagents, and energy, and they generate waste memenuhi
prinsip green chemistry ?
Dalam aktivitas analisis kimia juga harus diterapkan prinsip-prinsip
green chemistry

Green Chemical Analysis
The principles of green chemistry, suggested by Anastas and
Warner [6], are directly related to analytical chemistry as well,
the most important of them being
prevention of waste generation (1)
safer solvents and auxiliaries (5)
design for energy efficiency (6) ; and
safer chemistry to minimize the potential of chemical
accidents (12).

Green chemical analysis
What is green analytical chemistry?
The goal of green analytical chemistry is to use analytical
procedures that generate less hazardous waste and that
are safer to use and more benign to the environment.
The main analytical result is related to an increase of
analysis reliability, higher precision, and time saving, which
very positively combines with a substantial reduction of
waste.




Tahapan dalam Analisis Kimia
The general scheme of an analytical system.
PREPARASI SAMPEL
Identifikasi ketidakgreenan
Greening(menghijaukan) prosedur analisis
Identifikasi ketidakgreenan prosedur dalam
analisis kimia
Sample preparation and separation :

Bahan kimia
Bahan kimia
Preparation : wet destruction
Sample : Inorganic Solid for metal determination
Sampel padat
Asam anorganik
kuat-pekat (HNO
3
)
Larutan
Larutan siap analisis
Suhu tinggi
Pelarut
Prinsip 1 Prinsip 5 Prinsip 6 Prinsip 12
Prevention
of waste
generation
Safer
Solvents
and
Auxiliaries
Design for
Energy
Efficiency.
Safer
Chemistry
to minimize
accident
potential
x v x x
Gas NO
2
toksik
Dry destruction
Sample organic solid for metal determination
Prinsip 1 Prinsip 5 Prinsip 6 Prinsip 12
Prevention
of waste
generation
Safer
Solvents
and
Auxiliaries
Design for
Energy
Efficiency.
Safer
Chemistry
to minimize
accident
potential
X

X X
Sampel padat
Ashing aid
(MgO)
Pembakaran
T = 500-600
o
C
HCl
Greening
Pengunaan microwave digester
Gelombang mikro
Tanpa asam/volume asam kecil
Microwave Digestion increases
reaction rates while decreases
digestion times for sample
preparation through the use of
sealed, high-pressure, high-
temperature vessels
Additional energy saving is possible when a microwave
treatment or even just microwave heating is incorporated into
the process.
An ultrasonic irradiation may also have a strong effect on
several sample treatments.
The development of photochemical methods is a highly green
way in analytical chemistry as well.



PENGUKURAN/ANALISIS
Metode yang digunakan :
Volumetri
Gravimetri
Spektrofotometri
Elektrometri

Identifikasi ketidakgreenan
Ringkasan
Metode analisis Deskripsi Greenless identified Prinsip Green
Chemistry yang
dilanggar
Volumetri Didasarkan pada
reaksi-reaksi kimia
Digunakan zat-zat
kimia sebagai pereaksi
Pencegahan
terbentuknya limbah
Tidak sensitif Penggunaan volume
zat kimia yang besar
Dihasilkan limbah
Gravimetri Didasarkan pada
pembentukan endapan
yang dikeringkan
melalui pemijaran
pada suhu 600
o
C
Diperlukan pereaksi
kimia dihasilkan
limbah
Pencegahan
terbentuknya limbah
Perlu energy listrik
yang besar
Aktivitas yang hemat
energi
Spektrofotometri Sampel harus dalam
bentuk larutan
Diperlukan proses
preparasi dengan
asam-asam dengan
volum yang besar
Pencegahan
terbentuknya limbah
Diperlukan pereaksi
dan pelarut organic
ekstraksi
Digunakan pereaksi-
pereaksi kimia dan
pelarut organik
Kimia yang aman
Dihasilkan limbah
Greening
modifying an old method to incorporate procedures that
either use less hazardous chemicals or use lesser amounts
of hazardous chemicals.
developing new analytical methodologies
Use of direct techniques of analysis,
i.e. different laser-spectroscopic methods
or solventless processes of analysis
instrumental methods in analysis is a decrease in sample
volume needed for analysis.




Greening Signal Acquisiton
1. Spectroscopy
2. Electrochemistry
3. Bioanalytical chemistry

Contoh developing an old method to incorporate procedures
that either use less hazardous chemicals or use lesser
amounts of hazardous chemicals.
Identifikasi kation : penggunaan berbagai pereaksi kimia) diganti
dengan metode AAS
Analisis COD : digunakan K
2
Cr
2
O
7
merupakan oksidator, sebagai
larutan standar sebagai sumber oksigen Cr(VI) bersifat toksik
diganti dengan oksidator lain yang tidak toksik, misal KMnO
4
Penentuan konsentrasi ion logam dan semi logam (S, V) dengan AAS
dan spektrofotometri Visibel memerlukan preparasi dan pereaksi
kimia diganti dengan metode XRF atau AAN
Gravimetri diganti dengan Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)