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Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology Solomon Berg Martin


Chapter 1
A View of Life
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
The Human Genome Project mapped
the complete set of human genes
Genomics analyses the DNA
sequence of an organism
While genomics will lead to
breakthroughs in science, it also
raises ethical concerns
Safeguarding the privacy of genetic
information, for example
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Living organisms composed of cells
Unicellular organisms
Single cell
Multicellular organisms
Many cells organized to form
tissues, organs, and organ systems
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Cells
Plasma membrane regulates
passage of materials
Specialized molecules (usually
DNA) contain genetic instructions
Internal structures called
organelles perform specific
functions
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Types of cells
Prokaryotic cells, exclusive to
bacteria and microscopic
organisms
Eukaryotic cells contain a variety
of organelles, including a
nucleus, which houses DNA
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Biological growth
Increase in the size of cells, the
number of cells, or both
Development
Includes all the changes that take
place during an organisms life
Structures and body form are
adapted to an organisms
functions
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Metabolism processes
Chemical reactions and energy
transformations
Essential to nutrition, growth and
repair of cells, and conversion of
energy
Regulation of metabolic
processes maintains
homeostasis
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Stimuli
Physical or chemical changes in
the internal or external
environment
The organism responds to, for
example, changes in
Light
Temperature, pressure, or sound
The chemical composition of soil
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Locomotion
Simpler organisms
Amoeboid movement
The beating of cilia or flagella
Animals
Move by contracting muscles
Some are sessile and have cilia or
flagella
Plants respond to light, water, etc.
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction





Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Adaptation
Populations evolve to better
survive
Adaptations
Characteristics that enhance an
organisms ability to survive in a
particular environment
May be structural, physiological,
behavioral, or a combination
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life




The hierarchy
of biological
organizations
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
The cell
Consists of atoms and molecules
Is the basic unit of life
In multicellular organisms,
associates to form tissues
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Tissues
In animals, an example is muscle
In plants, an example is epidermis
Tissues are organized into
organs
Tissues and organs form organ
systems
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Population
Members of a species that live in
the same area at the same time
Community
Populations that live together and
interact
Ecosystem
A community and the environment
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
To carry on life processes, an
organism must have
Precise instructions
Communication among cells
This information is coded and
delivered by
Chemical substances
Electric impulses
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
DNA is the large molecule that
makes up genes
Genes specify instructions for
making every living organism
Watson and Crick worked out
structure of DNA in 1953
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life



DNA consists of two
chains of atoms
twisted into a helix


Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
DNA contains recipe for
proteins
Proteins determine structure and
function of cells and tissues
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
In multi-cellular organisms,
communication with and among
cells is critical
Some proteins are important in
this communication
Cell-to-cell communication is a
complex process called cell
signaling
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Information transmitted from one
part of the body to another is
important in regulating life
processes
Information is transmitted by
Hormones
Neurotransmitters and their
receptors
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Evolution is the unifying concept
of biology
Biology
Hierarchical classification scheme
Identifies the approximately 1.7
million species of living organisms
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Systematics studies the diversity
of organisms and their
evolutionary relationships
Taxonomy is the science of
naming and classifying organisms
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Binomial system of
nomenclature
Developed in the 18th century by
Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist
Names and classifies organisms
Basic unit is a species
Each species assigned a two-part
name
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Binomial system of
nomenclature uses a series of
taxonomic categories from
species to domain
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Each category is
more general and
more inclusive
than the one
below it
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Natural selection
Theory of evolution developed by
Darwin and Wallace
The Origin of Species by Natural
Selection published in 1859
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Natural selection based on four
observations
Members of a species show
variation
Organisms produce many more
offspring than will survive
Organisms compete
Only some survive to reproduce
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Egg masses of
the wood frog
Many more
produced than
can survive
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Variation among individuals
Result of different varieties of
genes that code each
characteristic
Ultimate source of variation is
random mutation
Chemical or physical changes in
DNA that can be inherited
Modifies genes
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Every cell of an organism
requires nutrients
Certain nutrients are used as
fuel for cellular respiration
Virtually all cells carry on cellular
respiration
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
A self-sufficient ecosystem
contains three types of
organisms
Producers
Consumers
Decomposers
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Ecosystems depend on
continuous input of energy
Organisms can neither create
energy nor use it with complete
efficiency
During every energy transaction,
some is lost to the environment
as heat
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
Energy
flow
Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
The scientific method involves
systematic thought
Deductive reasoning draws
conclusions from premises
Inductive reasoning begins with
observations and draws
conclusions or extrapolates

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning
Biology CHAPTER 1 A View of Life
The scientific
method involves
ordered steps
Hypothesis
Method
Results
Conclusion