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Boiler Water & Steam

Cycle
30.09.2008
Boiler/ steam generator
Steam generating device for a specific purpose.

Capable to meet variation in load demand

Capable of generating steam in a range of operating
pressure and temperature

For utility purpose, it should generate steam
uninterruptedly at operating pressure and temperature
for running steam turbines.
Water Circulation System
Theory of Circulation: The water leaves the
drum through the down comers at a temperature
slightly below saturation temperature. The flow
through the furnace wall is at saturation temperature.
Heat absorbed in water wall is latent heat of
vaporization creating a mixture of steam and water.
Circulation ratio
It may be defined as The ratio of the weight of water to
the weight of steam in the mixture leaving the heat
absorption surfaces is called Circulation Ratio.

CR = 30-35 Industrial boilers
CR = 6-8 Natrual cir. Boilers
CR = 2-3 Forced cir. Boilers
CR = 1 Once thru boilers (Sub critical)
CR = 1 Supercritical boilers

Type of Circulation
Natural circulation
(upto 175 ksc)

Forced/ Controlled
circulation (180-200
ksc)
Once Through
1. Sub critical
2. Supercritical


Density difference &
height of water column
Assisted by external
circulating pump (CC
pump)

Below 221.5 bar
240-360 bar
NATURAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM
The downcomer contain relatively cold water,
whereas the riser tube contain steam water mixture,
whose density is comparatively less .this density
difference is the driving force ,for the mixture.
(thermo-siphon principle)
circulation takes place at such a high rate that the
driving force and frictional resistance in water wall
are balanced.

NATURAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM
As the pressure increases , the difference in density
between water and steam reduces .
thus the hydrostatic head available will not be able to
overcome the frictional resistance for a flow
corresponding to the minimum requirement of
cooling of water wall tubes.
Natural circulation is limited to 175ksc


CONTROLLED CIRCULATION SYSYTEM
Beyond 180 Kg/Cm2 circulation is to be assisted
with pumps to overcome the frictional losses.

ONCE THROUGH CIRCULATION SYSTEM

Beyond the critical pressure ,phase transformation is
absent ,hence once through system is adopted.
however even at super critical pressure it is
advantageous to recirculate the water at low loads.
Typical operating pressure for such a system is
260ksc


Nucleate Boiling
As the heat flux increases, the water temperature
near the surface increases and reaches, saturation
temperature. At this point a change from liquid to
vapor occur locally. But since the bulk of water does
not reach saturation temperature the steam bubbles
collapse giving up their latent heat to raise the
temperature of water. Nucleate boiling regimes are
characterized by high heat transfer coefficients.

DNB
Beyond nucleate boiling region (i.e at still higher heat
fluxes) the bubbles form a film of steam inside the
heating surfaces. This condition is known as film
boiling. The point, beyond which film boiling occurs
is known as Departure from nucleate Boiling (DNB).
Till the Occurrence of DNB metal temperature is
slightly above the water temperature. When water
starts boiling, the metal temperature is slightly above
the saturation temperature. But when DNB occurs,
the metal temperature increases much higher than
the saturation temperature.

Representation of steam/ water
parameters on T-S diagram
3
2
1
Entropy
374.16
o
C
1. Sub critical parameter
2. Critical parameter,
(221.65 bar/ 374.16
o
C)
3. Supercritical parameter
Hot well
BFP
B.DRUM
LP HEATERS
ECO
WATER WALL
DOWN COMER
HPH
URH
BRH
DEAERATOR
Flow chart of WCS
FRS

CEP
Water Circulation System
Economizer
Boiler drum
Down Comers
Water walls

Economiser
The function of an economiser in a steam
generating unit is to absorb heat from the
flue gases and add this as sensible heat to
the feed water before the water enters
the evaporative circuit of the boiler.

Economiser
FORMS PART OF FEED WATER CIRCUIT
PRE HEAT BOILER FEED WATER
RECOVERY OF HEAT FROM FLUE GAS
LOCATED IN BOTTOM OF REAR PASS
NO STEAM FORMATION


Economiser Re-circulation
A recirculation line with a stop valve and non-return
valve may be incorporated to keep circulation in
economiser into steam drum when there is fire in
furnace but no feed flow. (e.g. During start-up).
Drum
The boiler drum forms a part of the circulation
system of the boiler. The drum serves two
functions, the first and primary one being that
of separating steam from the mixture of water
and steam discharged into it. Secondly, the
drum houses all equipments used for
purification of steam after being separated
from water. This purification equipment is
commonly referred to as the Drum Internals.
Drum
TO SEPARATE WATER FROM STEAM
TO REMOVE DISSOLVED SOLIDS
TO PROTECT WATER WALLS FROM
STARVATION
ACTS AS TEMPORARY PRESSURE
RESERVOIR DURING TRANSIENT LOADS

DRUM INTERNALS

1. PRIMARY SEPERATORS

CONSISTS OF BAFFLE ARRANGEMENT
DEVICES WHICH CHANGE THE
DIRECTION OF FLOW
OF STEAM AND WATER MIXTURE


2. SECONDARY SEPERATORS

SEPERATORS EMPLOYING SPINNING
ACTION



3. SCREENING DRYERS


DOWN COMERS
There are six down comers which carry
water from boiler drum to the ring
header.
They are installed from outside the
furnace to keep density difference for
natural circulation of water & steam.
WATER WALLS
HEATING AND EVAPORATING THE FEED WATER
SUPPLIED TO THE BOILER FROM THE ECONOMISERS.

THESE ARE VERTICAL TUBES CONNECTED AT THE TOP
AND BOTTOM TO THE HEADERS.

THESE TUBES RECEIVE WATER FROM THE BOILER
DRUM BY MEANS OF DOWNCOMERS CONNECTED
BETWEEN DRUM AND WATER WALLS LOWER HEADER.

APPROXIMATELY 50% OF THE HEAT RELEASED BY THE
COMBUSTION OF THE FUEL IN THE FURNACE IS
ABSORBED BY THE WATER WALLS.

Water wall construction
Made of carbon steel (Grade-C) hollow circular
tubes and DM water flows inside
Waterwalls are stiffened by the vertical stays
and buck stays to safeguard from furnace
pressure pulsation & explosion/ implosion
The boiler as a whole is hanging type,
supported at the top in large structural
columns.
Vertical expansion is allowed downwards and
provision is made at bottom trough seal near
ring header.

RISER TUBES
A.RISER IS A TUBE THROUGH
WHICH WATER AND STEAM PASS FROM
AN UPPER WATER WALL HEADER TO A
STEAM DRUM
Steam Circulation System
Primary super heater
Platen super heater
Final super heater
Reheater

SUPER HEATER
RAISE STEAM TO HIGHER TEMPERATURE
ARRANGED IN 3 STAGES
LTSH LOCATED ABOVE ECONOMISER
RADIANT PENDENT TYPE (DIV PANEL) ABOVE
FURNACE
CONVECTIVE FINAL SUPER HEATER ABOVE
FURNACE IN CONVECTIVE PATH


Superheaters
Convection Superheaters
Radiant Superheaters
Convection Super heaters

Convection super heaters absorb heat mainly by the
impingement of flow of hot gas around the tubes. . A
purely convection super heater has a rising steam
temperature characteristic.
Radiant Super heaters

Radiant super heater absorb heat by direct radiation
from the furnace and are generally located at the top
of the furnace. a radiant super heater has a falling
characteristic, the steam temperature drops as the
steam flow rises.

Desuperheater/Attemperator

Desuperheating or attemperation is the reduction or
removal of superheat from steam to the extent
required.
a superheater which receives its heat lay covnection
from gas flowing over it, is rising temperature with
increasing output. A desuperheaters may be used to
reduce the steam temperature
RE HEATER
This is the part of the boiler which receives steam
back from the turbine after it has given up some of
its heat energy in the high pressure section of the
turbine. The reheater raises the temperature of this
steam, usually to its original value, for further
expansion in the turbine.
DPNL
SHTR
P
l
a
t
e
n

S
H
T
R

S
C
R
E
E
n
LTSH
ESP
APH
ID fan
Chimney
Economiser
Bottom Ash
Downcomer
Drum
waterwall
Fireball
Gooseneck
Reheater
Platen SH.

375C-425C
Final SH.

500-540C
Economizer

240-310C
LTSH

330-375C
Water Wall

310C
210 MW Boiler: Water and Steam Circuit

BOTTOM RNG HDR & Z-PANEL 1
ST
PASS W.W
1
ST
PASS W.W O/L HDRS ROOF I/L HEADER
2
ND
PASS UPPER C-HDR 2
nd
PASS LOWER C-HDRS
LTSH I/L HEADER LTSH O/L HEADER
D.P.I/L HEADER D.P.O/L HEADER
S.H. HEADER R.H.HEADER
2
ND
PASS ROOF O/L HDR(REAR ECONOMISER




M.S
H.
R.
H C.R.H
FROM F.R.S
DESCRIPTION

UNIT

HP HEATER IN

NCR 210 MW

SAT STEAM TEMP. IN DRUM

C

348

STEAM TEMPERATURE AT LTSH OUTLET

C

400

STEAM TEMPERATURE AT SH PLATEN OUTLET

C

510

STEAM TEMPERATURE AT FINAL SH OUTLET

C

540

STEAM TEMP. AT RH INLET

C

337

STEAM TEMP. AT RH OUTLET

C

540

WATER TEMP. AT ECO INLET

C

244

WATER TEMP. AT ECO OUTLET

C

274

AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE

C

35

AIR TEMPERATURE AT AH OUTLET (PRI. SIDE)

C

354

AIR TEMPERATURE AT AH OUTLET (SEC. SIDE)

C

348

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT SH PLATEN INLET

C

1165

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT RH FRONT INLET

C

1016

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT RH REAR INLET

C

868

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT SH FINISH INLET

C

753

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT LTSH INLET

C

638

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT ECO INLET

C

473

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT AH INLET

C

379

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AT AH OUTLET

C

146