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BPP BUSINESS SCHOOL

BPP BUSINESS SCHOOL


Competitive Intelligence
Literature review & referencing
BPP SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
BPP BUSINESS SCHOOL 2 Competitive Intelligence
Outline
Understand the need and the process of critically reviewing the literature
How to use computer software to organize ideas and references
How to reference other researchers work in the text

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The general research process
Define the
research topic
Evaluate what
is already
known
Gather
information of
good quality
Interpret the results
and formulate
conclusions
*Anderson, (2004), pp.10
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Literature Review (LR) (i)
Evaluate what
is already
known
Literally,
write a critical review
of the literature
Generate & Refine the research problem
Awareness of the current state of knowledge
Informed about current research (methods, limitations, gaps)
Identify central issues in a field
Integrate with what others have done
The most common use of LR is research synthesis that
combines at least two of the above points
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Literature Review (LR) (ii)
Critically review the literature?
Critical literature review?
It is NOT:

a narration or a listing of other researchers work
rubbishing or rejecting someone elses work
just giving your opinion
It is:

an approach with some skepticism
a considered and justified examination
justifying your opinion with clear arguments and references to other work
identifying the most relevant and significant theories and experts
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How to critically review the literature (i)
Theme 1
Author 1 Author 2 Author 3
Theme 2
Theme 3
Describe what has been written and
researched by author(s)
Compare and contract ideas from different authors
Saunders et al., (2012), pp.79
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How to critically review the literature (ii)
Saunders et al., (2012), pp.79
1. Start with a more generic approach
2. Provide a brief overview of key ideas and themes
3. Summarize, compare and research the work of the key authors
4. Narrow down to highlight previous research work relevant to your own research
problem
5. Provide a detailed account of the findings of this research and show how they are
related
6. Highlight those aspects where your approach will make any kind of difference
7. Lead the reader into subsequent sections of your report
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Sources of literature
Reports

Theses

Emails

Conference proceedings

Company reports

Unpublished manuscript
sources

Governmental publications
Primary literature
Journals

Books

Newspapers

Governmental
publications
Secondary literature
Databases

Indexes

Catalogues

Encyclopedias

Dictionaries

Bibliographies

Citation indexes
Tertiary literature
Saunders et al., (2012), pp.82
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Academic papers (i)
Paper Title
Author
Abstract
Keywords
Correspondence address
Publication details
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Academic papers (ii)
References/Bibliography
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The LR process
Research Questions/
Objectives
Define search
parameters
Search & obtain
the literature
Evaluate
Record &
Reference
Adapted from Saunders et al., (2012)
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Defining the parameters of the search (keywords)
Subject area (eg. HRM, accounting, accountancy)
Business sector (eg. manufacturing, oil, telecommunications)
Geographical area (eg. UK, Europe)
Publication period (eg. last 10 years)
Literature type (eg. referred journals, books)
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A Literature Map of the research
Helps to organize the literature
A visual summary of other researchers work
Makes connections easily to recognize
Spot areas of further investigation

Mind-map software: Edraw MindMap, ConceptDraw MindMap
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Literature Map example (i)
http://www.grin.com/en/doc/235356/the-entrepreneurial-creation-of-public-goods-evidence-from-the-green-building
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Keeping notes of the research
* See software
Nr. Author Title Location Comments Pages
1 Myungweon Choi (2011) Employees attitudes
towards organizational
change: a literature
review
PDF Good review of
existing research.
Discusses how the
constructs are defined
in the organizational
change literature and
synthesizes the
antecedents of each
Construct. Includes a
definition review of
readiness for change
See pages 482-
483
2 Armenakis & Bedeian
(1999)
Organizational
change: A review of
theory and research
in the 1990s
PDF Expanding Armenakis
et al.s definition
(1993) to
include employees
beliefs regarding the
appropriateness
of, support for, and
value of the change
Journal of
Management,
25(3),
293315
Notes & DM software: Simplenote, MS OneNote, Evernote, DevonThink
Office, Scrivener 2
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Evaluating the literature
Evaluation
Assessment of relevance Assessment of value
How recent is it?
Is the item likely to have been
superseded?
Is it relevant to your work in order to
include it?
Is it excluded?
Are there any references to this item
from other work?
Does it support or contradict your
work?
Does it appear to be biased (illogical
arguments, cases that seem to
perfectly support the arguments)?
What are the methodological choices
(sampling, data collection &
analysis)?
Is the precision sufficient?
Does it show new paths for further
research?
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Recording & Referencing the literature
Why to record?
Sources can grow in quantity very very fast
Ideas, concepts, theories and methods can be very complicated to
remember in details
Need to reference the sources in the main text

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Referencing the literature
Reference or citation

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The scope of referencing
Support your ideas and arguments with published (and, therefore, recognized)
evidence
Show evidence of academic underpinning of your work
Identify your sources
Avoid plagiarism
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Referencing Systems or Styles
Readers should be able to track the sources you use and verify the content
Referencing has to be consistent throughout the text
References need to be cited in two different places: at the point at
which a document is referred to in the text and in a list at the end of the
work
There are many referencing systems or styles with variations
In social sciences, the most commonly used style is the Harvard
Referencing Style with its variation
The important thing is to be consistent throughout the text and apply the
style correctly


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How to reference
Journal Book
Author(s) family name,
first name, initials
Author(s) family name,
first name, initials
Year of publication (in
parentheses)
Year of publication (in
parentheses)
Title of the article Title and subtitle of book
Title of journal Edition
Volume Place of publication
Part/Issue Publisher
Page Numbers (preceded
by p. or pp.)
Adapted from Saunders et al., (2012)
Citing in text
Details
Authors surname
Publication year
Page number(s)
Citing in the reference section
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Referencing in the text
Single author (Saunders, 2007, pp. 50-60)
Single author with more publications (Saunders, 2006a, 2006b)
Corporate author (McKinsey, 2001)
Newspaper with no clear author (The Guardian, 2005)
Website (BPP, 2012)
Dual authors (Saunders and Thornhill, 2006)
More than 2 authors (Lewis et al., 2004)
Different authors (Casell, 2004; Saunders, 2007)
Citing others (Saunders, 2007 cited by Jones, 2010)
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Referencing in the reference section
Book (1
st
edition) Cassell, C. and Symon, G. (2004). Essential guide to qualitative
methods in organizational research. London: Sage Publications
Book (>1
st
edition) Daymon, C. and Holloway, I. (2010). Qualitative research methods
in public relations and marketing communications. (2
nd
edn).
London: Routledge
Journal article Wright, S., Eid, E.R. and Fleisher, C.S. (2009) Competitive
intelligence in practice: Empirical evidence from the UK retail
banking sector. Journal of Marketing Management. Vol. 26, No. 9-
10, pp. 941-964
Newspapers Hawkes, S. Umbro slashes England shirt production. The Times. 24
Nov. 2007, p. 63
Letters and personal
emails
Slater, A. (2010). Unpublished letter to D. Smith re. Membership
Management Forum, 10 Sept. 2010

Slater, A. (2010). Email to D. Smith re. Membership Management
Forum, 10 Sept. 2010
Internet sources Source organization. (year). Title of site or page within site. Available
at http://www.FullInternetAddress.com [Accessed DD/MM/YYY]
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Plagiarism
Forms of plagiarism
Stealing material from another source and passing it off as your own (essay-
banks, buying a paper from a research service)
Copying a whole paper from a source text without proper acknowledgement
Submitting a text written by someone else
Copying sections or material from one or more source texts and supplying
proper documentation BUT leaving out quotation marks, references etc.
Paraphrasing material from one or more source texts without proper
referencing
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Summary
Literature Review is an essential part of any kind of research
LR means a methodological approach of the existing work made by others
Organizing, recording and referencing literature is an important part of the
process
There are software that can help the whole process
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Finally
Thank you very much