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CORROSION &

some important
Corrosion Types
illustration of essential corrosion basics
Topics
Definition of corrosion
Why corrosion is Important
Corrosion Electrochemistry
Corrosive Environments
Types of corrosion
Corrosion Control Techniques
Definition of Corrosion
In broad terms, the interaction between a
material and its environment that results in a
degradation of the physical, mechanical, or
even esthetic properties of that material.
More specifically, corrosion is usually
associated with a change in the oxidation
state of a metal, oxide, or semiconductor
Why Corrosion is Important
Economics

Safety

Conservations
Economics of Corrosion
The cost of corrosion in the industrial
countries has been estimated to be on the
order of 4% of the gross national product
Replacement of
structures or
components
Protection against
corrosion
Direct Losses
Economics of Corrosion
Indirect Losses
Cost of shutdown
Loss of product or efficiency
Contamination
Economics of Corrosion
Source of corrosion-resistant metals
Much of the chromium
being used is considered
irreplaceable
Engineering systems for
service environments require
materials that are chemically
stable or that can be made
chemically stable
Corrosion of metals
Of polymers,
ceramics, etc ...
CORROSION
Of metals
... Is probably the commonest electrochemical phenomenon
encountered in day-to-day life ...
or : ... METALLURGY IN REVERSE ...
Of coatings & linings
Metal (in-)stability :
Origin of Electrode Potential E
METAL
M
atom
M
n+

ion
n e
Electrons
Nernst :
E =E
0
+RT/nF * ln [ a
ox
/ a
red
]
Corrosion mechanism
Fe +


Fe
2+
+ 2 e
-
anodic (oxidation) reaction
Corrosive environment
Reduction reactions
Depending on the nature & components
of the environment :

acid environment :
2H
+
+ 2e
-
H
2

alkaline or neutral environment :


O
2
+ 2H
2
O + 4e
-
4OH
-


Thermodynamics: E-pH Diagrams
Pourbaix diagrams
Effect of pH
Magnetite (for example)
Low pH no oxides form
High pH porous Fe(OH)3.xH2O forms
pH 10-12 ideal range for carbon steel
Different metals require different conditions for
uniform corrosion
pH is controlled to control uniform corrosion
Kinetics
Polarization curves
Passivating metal
Corrosion Types
Corrosion Types
Uniform corrosion
Galvanic corrosion
Intergranular Transgranular
Stress Corrosion
Cracking (SCC)
Pitting
Crevice Corrosion
Microbiological Corrosion
General (uniform) corrosion
Rusting

Wastage

White Rust
General (uniform) corrosion
Can be a good or a bad thing
Corrosion occurs evenly over the surface
Oxide layers can be very tough
Magnetite
Fe
3
O
4
Galvanic corrosion
Corrosion between a
noble and less noble
metal in the presence
of an aggressive
medium
The more electro-
positive = cathode, the
least electropositive =
anode
Galvanic corrosion (2)
Bimetallic Corrosion
Selective Leaching (Dealloying)
(Oxygen) Concentration Cell
IGA & Sensitization
Mechanisms ...
Weld Decay /
Sensitization & Weld Decay
Mechanism :
Cr
23
C
6
Pitting corrosion
Caused by Chlorides
(halides)
Passive metals &
alloys = susceptible
Mechanism
Crevice corrosion
Accelerated corrosion in a
narrow crevice between
two parts of a component,
...one of which is made
from a metal ...
Stress Corrosion Cracking
(SCC)
(Sudden) fracture of a
metal upon exposure
to a corrosive
environment

Intergranular ...
Transgranular ...
Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking
(IGSCC)
Mechanisms
Transgranular Stress Corrosion Cracking
(TGSCC)
Mechanism (theories)
Corrosion Fatigue
Corrosion Fatigue (2)
Erosion-corrosion
MIC - Microbiologically
Induced Corrosion
Various ways :
- SRBs
- Iron-oxidizing
- Etc , etc
High-Temperature Corrosion
Oxidation
Sulfidation
Carburization
.
Atmospheric Corrosion
How to avoid corrosion ?...
Design
Material selection
Coatings
Changing the environment ...