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Why is Optical Fibre faster?

Boris Dosen
What am I hoping to achieve?
that we jointly come to a conclusion why we like optical fibre more than
coaxial or Ethernet (copper) cables.

that we become a step closer to the ENGINEERING UTOPIA, where
everyone knows the answer to THIS question.
Why should we all care?
Because we use the Internet everyday.
Because we sell this thing for a living.
Because Optical Fibre has enable services such as iPlayer, allowing you
to watch Snog, Marry, Avoid at your convenience
If you have no idea what I am talking about, than because it also enables you
to Google what iPlayer is and what Snog, Marry, Avoid is
Coaxial Cable vs Fibre
Cable
Made out of copper
Used to send electric signals

If your router is connected to
the local exchange via a Coaxial
Cable, your internet connection is
probably around 8 Mbit/s
Made out of glass
Used to send light signals

If your router is connected to
the local exchange an Optical Fibre,
your internet connection is
20 Mbit/s plus
Coaxial Cable vs Fibre
Cable
SLOWER FASTER
WHY?
Lets Look at This Example
TRANSMITTER
I just send signals
that represent
zeroes and ones
down the wire
COAXIAL CABLE
RECEIVER
I will make a
beeping sound as
soon as I realise
that I am receiving
a signal
Transmitter starts sending some data down the wire. The receiver beeps after 2s.
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
FANCY OPTICAL FIBRE
Transmitter starts sending some data down the optical fibre. Optical fibre is of the
same length as the coaxial cable.

a) It will take less than 2s until receiver makes the beeping sound
b) It will take exactly 2s until receiver makes the beeping sound
c) It will take more than 2s until receiver makes the beeping sound
Who travels Faster?
FANCY OPTICAL CABLE
I am a light signal. I
travel at the Speed of
Light!! Whoosh!
COAXIAL CABLE
I am an electrical
signal. And guess
what? I travel at the
Speed of Light too!
Lets Look at This Example
TRANSMITTER
I just send signals
that represent
zeroes and ones
down the wire
COAXIAL CABLE
RECEIVER
I will make a
beeping sound as
soon as I realise
that I am receiving
a signal
Transmitter starts sending some data down the wire. The receiver beeps after 2s.
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
FANCY OPTICAL FIBRE
Transmitter starts sending some data down the optical fibre. Optical fibre is of the
same length as the coaxial cable.

b) It will take exactly 2s until receiver makes the beeping sound
Coaxial Cable vs Fibre
Cable
SLOWER FASTER
So signal will propagate down the wire and down the optical fibre at the SAME speed
-the speed of light
Heres Why
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
FANCY OPTICAL CABLE
OMG!
This optical cable is sooo FANCY!
I can hear perfectly what the
transmitter is telling me
Heres Why
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
OMG!
This coaxial cable is HORRIBLE!!
I can barely hear what the transmitter is
saying!
COAXIAL CABLE
Heres Why
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
YO! Transmitter!
Change between your zeroes and ones
more slowly, so that I can hear you
better!
COAXIAL CABLE
Signals do not travel faster down
the fibre cable!

They just stay more preserved.
Hence, if you are using fibre you
can have your transmitter
switching between ones and
zeroes faster! Hence, the faster
Internet!
Why Else is Fibre cool
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
FANCY OPTICAL CABLE
You know what!?
I can send light signals
of different colours!
So, We are playing
the colour game
now!? Bring it on!
10100101101001
10001011010100
00010101010001
10101011101001
11010011101010
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
Because both the Business people and the Engineers like names
that make them look smart, and both have an unhealthy obsession
with three letter acronyms.