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OPTIMAL BODY WEIGHT

FOR PERFORMANCE, FITNESS


and WELL BEING

Learning Objectives
w Find out what tissues of the body constitute fat-free mass.
w Discover how densitometry and several field techniques
are used to assess body composition.
w Examine the relationship of relative leanness and
fatness to performance in sport.
Body Composition
w There are several different models for measuring body
composition. The two compartment model is the most
common, and the simplest and easiest forms of mearuing
body composition can measure only fat mass, and fat free
mass
MODELS OF BODY COMPOSITION
Fat mass and Fat Free and Lean Mass
Fat-free mass is composed of all of the body's nonfat
tissue including bone, muscle, organs, and connective
tissue. Lean body mass includes all fat-free mass along
with essential fat. Lean body mass is difficult to measure
so the fat mass/fat-free mass model is most often used.
Body fat in almost every cell

Keep in mind that there is some body fat in almost every
cell in your body. Youll find tiny amounts of lipid in the
cell structures of almost every cell, and covering the
nerves in your brain and other places!.
Did You Know?
Body composition is a better indicator of fitness
than body size and weight. Being overfat (not
necessarily overweight) has a negative impact on
athletic performance and health. Standard
height-weight tables do not provide accurate
estimates of what an athlete should weigh
because they do not take into account the
composition of the weight. An athlete can be
overweight according to these tables yet have
very little body fat.
And
Body composition is a better indicator of fitness
than body size and weight. Being overfat (not
necessarily overweight) has a negative impact on
athletic performance and health. Standard
height-weight tables do not provide accurate
estimates of what an athlete should weigh
because they do not take into account the
composition of the weight. An athlete can be
overweight according to these tables yet have
very little body fat.
Android Obesity - Apple shaped
Gynoid Obesity = Pear Shaped
Android vs Gynoid Obesity
Android obesity is excess fat carried in the torso,
and more common in men
Gynoid obesity is excess fat at/near the hips and
is more common in women
Android obesity is more highly associated with
obesity related disease such as heart attack, high
blood lipid levels, diabetes, and more

While obesity is never a good thing, android
obesity is worse than gynoid obesity
Simple Methods of assessing body
type/build

WHR = Waist circumference/hip circumference
F >.80 =high risk M > .91 high risk
F<.73 = low risk M < .85 low risk

BMI Body Mass Index
Weight(kg) height in Meters Squared
>25 = overweight
>30 = obese
Waist to Hip Ratio and BMI are NOT
methods of measuring body
composition
These methods do not measure body
composition, but are attempting to guesstimate
body fatness
These methods work well when the goal is to
measure a large population, but do not work well
for individuals
The primary advantages of these methods is they
are non-invasive, they require no specialized
equipment, and that they can be done quickly
Assessing Body Composition
w Densitometry (hydrostatic weighing)
w Skinfold fat thickness
w Bioelectric impedance
Densitometry
w Body density = Body mass
Body volume
w Body mass = measured on a regular scale
w Body volume = measured using hydrostatic (underwater)
weighing accounting for water density and
air trapped in lungs
Underwater weighing
w The two men on the next slide are the same weight and height,
but different body compositions. Note what is different about
them.
UNDERWATER WEIGHING TECHNIQUE
Did You Know?
Inaccuracies in densitometry are due to variation in the
density of the fat-free mass from one individual to
another. Age, sex, and race affect the density of fat-free
mass. As well as inaccuracies in measuring the air
trapped in the lungs
The next slides are photos of actual underwater
weighings taking place
BIA bioelectric impedance analysis
Very Small voltage transmitted through the body
Resistance is measured
The gives total body water
FFM is repeatedly shown to be 73% water, so FFM can
be calculated, and the rest is fat

Assumptions:
The body is a perfect cylinder
Participant is properly hydrated

Common Skinfold Sites
3 site equation is just as accurate as seven site equation
For Women: Triceps, Iliac Crest, Thigh
For Men: Chest, Abdomen, Thigh

Add together the sum of the skinfolds and insert into an
equation such as the Jackson and Pollock equation.
This gives density, not BF.
Then Use Siri or Brozek to determine %BF
females:Body Density = 1.0994921 -
0.0009929*sum + 0.0000023*sum2 -
0.0001392*age (Sum of Skinfolds)
Males:Body Density = 1.1093800 -
0.0008267*sum + 0.0000016*sum2 -
0.0002574*age (Sum of Skinfolds)

Jackson and Pollock generalized 3 site equations. You are not
expected to know these equations
What % body fat is typical?
The American College of Sports Medicine has a great
chart on body fate percentages for women. Note that
above average, is a lower body fat, meaning above
average leanness
What % body fat is typical?

.. As well as a chart for men.
Take home message for body
composition
Body composition measurements are simple estimates,
and none of them are really very accurate. They give you
a general idea of the level of fatness, but not an exact
number

What these methods are great for is measuring change.
As long as all of the rules are followed these methods
are great at telling you if you have become leaner or
fatter.
But as far as absolute fatness, they are really just an
educated guess
Body Composition and Performance
Maximizing fat-free mass
w Desirable for strength, power, and muscular endurance
w Undesirable for endurance or jumping sports if result is a
gain in weight
Minimizing relative body fat
w Desirable, especially in sports in which
the body weight is moved through
space
w Improves speed, endurance, balance,
agility, and jumping ability
RELATIVE BODY FAT IN ELITE RUNNERS
Risks With Severe Weight Loss
w Dehydration
w Chronic fatigue
w Disordered eating and eating disorders
w Menstrual dysfunction
w Bone mineral disorders
Appropriate Weight Guidelines
w Maximize performance within the specific sport
w Are based on body composition
w Emphasize relative body fat rather than total body mass
w Use a range of relative fat values that are considered
acceptable for the athletes age and sex
Endurance may have body fat as low as 5-6%
( 3-4% higher for women)

Non- Athletes..it depends on who you ask. See the ACSM chart
http://tinyurl.com/acsmfat


Achieving Optimal Weight
w Combine proper diet with exercise.
w Lose no more than 0.5 to 1.0 kg (1 to 2 lb) per week.
w Reduce caloric intake to 200 to 500 kcal less than daily
energy expenditure.
w Use moderate resistance and endurance training.
Negative Energy Balance
A negative Energy Balance is required for weight loss

1 lb of fat = 3500 Calories

Weight loss is a simple equation. Calories in must be less
than calories expended. The only way for a diet to work is for
there to be a negative calorie balance. Your text explains this
very well.
How Many Calories in a lb of fat