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Torque (Moment Force)

The effectiveness of force in producing


rotation about that axis.
It is measured by the product of the force
and the perpendicular distance from the
axis of rotation to the line of action of
force.
Mathematical Definition of
torque
Magnitude:
r F
Direction is determined by
the right hand rule.
r
F
Note: for fixed rotational axis motion, only
components of and in the
x-y plane will contribute to the torque along
the rotational axis



Practical Application

Which of the following forces provide the
highest torque from O and in what
direction.
Example 6 The Achilles Tendon
Figure (a) shows the ankle joint
and the Achilles tendon
attached to the heel at point P.
The tendon exerts a force of
magnitude F=720 N, as Figure
(b) indicates. Determine the
torque (magnitude and
direction) of this force about the
ankle joint, which is located
3.610
2
m away from point P.
Newton's Second Law for
Rotation

Newton's Second Law for Rotation
ROTATIONAL ANALOG OF NEWTONS SECOND LAW
FOR A RIGID BODY ROTATING ABOUT A FIXED AXIS:
net
z z
I
Requirement: a must be expressed in rad/s
2
.
Important:
and
are vector components along the same axis
Example 7 The Torque of an Electric Saw
Motor
1. The motor in an electric saw brings the
circular blade from rest up to the rated
angular velocity of 80.0 rev/s in 240.0 rev.
One type of blade has a moment of inertia
of 1.4110
2
kg m2. What net torque
(assumed constant) must the motor apply
to the blade?
Example 8
2. Figure a shows a uniform disk, with
mass M = 2.5 kg and radius R = 20
cm, mounted on a fixed horizontal
axle. A block with mass m = 1.2 kg
hangs from a massless cord that is
wrapped around the rim of the disk.
Find the acceleration of the falling
block, the angular acceleration of the
disk, and the tension in the cord. The
cord does not slip, and there is no
friction at the axle.


Rotational Work
The rotational work W
R

done by a constant torque
in turning an object
through an angle is:
Requirement: must be expressed in radians.
Unit of work: joule (J)
For variable torque, rotational work is:
Rotational Net Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem



1. A ball of mass M and radius R starts
from rest at a height of 2.00m and rolls
down a 30.0 slope. What is the linear
speed of the ball when it leaves the
incline. Assume that the ball rolls without
slipping.



Work and Energy in Rotational
Motion




Corresponding Relations for
Translational and Rotational Motion
#59, 61 p. 270