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Mechanical System Verification


LVDT Calibration
Use NIST traceable
micrometer
Eight point calibration
Acceptance Criteria
Near zero intercept
R-squared > 0.99

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Mechanical System Verification
Load Cell Zero
Use strain indicator
Measure load cell zero reading
Used to determine if load cell
has been fatigued or
overstrained
Acceptance Criteria
Zero reading < 1.5 %
of full-scale sensitivity
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Mechanical System Verification
Load Cell Calibration Certificates
Check laboratory
documentation to determine
last NIST traceable calibration
Acceptance Criteria
NIST traceable calibration
within one year
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Mechanical System Verification
Load Cell Calibration Verification
Requires NIST traceable
proving rings
Utilizes static loading
Verifies load cell calibration
Measures unwanted friction
Measures unwanted bending
and deflections
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Mechanical System Verification
Load Cell Calibration Verification
Procedure
Apply static (ramp) load from 10 -
90% of proving ring capacity @
10% intervals
Register load cell/LVDT readings
with data acquisition system
Read dial gauge on proving ring
Figure A.1. 500 lb Static (Ramp) Testing, Load versus Time
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50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time, sec
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Mechanical System Verification
Load Cell Calibration Verification
Acceptance Criteria
Proving ring versus load cell
value within 5% of each other
Proving ring dial gauge versus
LVDT reading within 5% of
each other
Load cell reading versus proving ring load values, run #1
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100
200
300
400
500
0 100 200 300 400 500
Proving Ring Load, lb
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Replicate 1
Upper Load Limit
Lower Load Limit
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Mechanical System Verification
Dynamic Response
Verify overall equipment ability
to conduct Resilient Modulus
testing
Verify data acquisition process
Verify data format
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Mechanical System Verification
Dynamic Response
Procedure
Remove dial gauge from proving ring
Use external LVDTs or internally
mounted LVDT for displacement
measurements
Apply haversine shaped load pulse
(.1 seconds on, .9 seconds off)

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Procedure (continued)
Apply dynamic load from 10 -
90% of proving ring capacity @
10% intervals
Read deformation using data
acquisition system
Mechanical System Verification
Dynamic Response
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Acceptance Criteria
Generated haversine close to ideal
Deformation response close to
haversine
Deformation within 5% of
standard
R-square > 0.99
.002 second or less phase shift
between load and deformation
Ymax/Ymin < 1.10 (10%)
Load-deformation characteristics, run #1 - 500 lb dynamic (haversine) test.
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50.00
100.00
150.00
200.00
250.00
300.00
350.00
400.00
450.00
500.00
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Deformation, in
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l l V
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l u
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Replicate 1
Upper Limit
Lower Limit
Mechanical System Verification
Dynamic Response
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Dynamic sinusoidal tests
Verify overall system electronics
(phase angle measurements)
Detect misalignment problems
through the use of phase angle
measurements
Mechanical System Verification
Phase Angles
Figure A.4. Dynamic Response Check of 500 lb Proving Ring, 1 Hz
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50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time, sec
L
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a
d
, l b
Acceptance Criteria
Phase angle < 2.8 degrees
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Procedure
Use autonomous pressure reading
device to verify pressure
Mechanical System Verification
Triaxial Pressure Chamber
Acceptance Criteria
Gauge readings 2.5 % of
target values
Hold for 10 minutes
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The 3-Phase Startup Process
Verification of Electronic System

Verification of Mechanical System

Verification of Laboratory Ability to Conduct
P46 Resilient Modulus Test
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Laboratory Proficiency Testing
Focuses on laboratory ability
(personnel/equipment)
Sample preparation
Operators ability to conduct a
test
Proper sequence and magnitude
of loading
Proper data format
Analysis of raw data to detect any
discrepancies
Investigation of within and
between laboratory variability
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Laboratory Proficiency Testing
Acceptance Criteria
Vertical deformations within 30%
Approval by Representative based
on visual observations
Conformance to all aspects of the
protocol
Haversine wave form close to
ideal
Deformation response reasonable
Resilient Modulus relationship
reasonable
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PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES
What is the Resilient Modulus (M
r
) Startup
Procedure Product Line
Why M
r
Testing and the Startup Procedure is
Important
Development of the M
r
Startup Procedure
How to Conduct the M
r
Startup Procedure


How to Get Information on the M
r
Testing
and Startup Product Line
Who Should Use the M
r
Testing and
Startup Product Line and Why
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Who Should Use the Product?
Any organization performing
resilient modulus testing
State DOTs
Universities
Consultant laboratories
Can be used for other tests as
well
Complex modulus
Creep compliance
Indirect tensile testing, etc.
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When Should Product Be Used?
General
Prior to starting a testing program
Every year during production
testing
After a period of system inactivity

Other recommendations
Verify the operation of older
machines for new applications
When equipment is replaced
When equipment is moved
Whenever a suspected overload or
malfunction occurs
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Uncover and Avoid Problems
Electronics
Over-ranged load cell
Inadequate filters
Amplitude roll off: 2 Hz - 50 Hz
Unmatched filters
Excessive time delay (phase
angle) between channels
Filters on and off

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Uncover And Avoid Problems
Software
Software not controlling the load
adequately
Inadequate sampling rate
Raw data with no units
Automatic gain control, error range
too big
Lack of gain control adjustment
during testing
Improper raw data format -
command values were saved rather
than the feedback values
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Uncover And Avoid Problems
Mechanical
System not fast enough to apply proper
haversine loads - complete upgrade of signal
conditioning and control
Oversize servo-value
Friction in servo-value piston
Friction in triaxial cell seals
Misalignment caused by improperly designed
triaxial cell fixture
Excessive deformation, up to 76% of total
deformation due to bending of triaxial cell
base plate
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Uncover And Avoid Problems
Mechanical (continued)
Excessive deformation due to
unrestrained triaxial cell
Slippage of LVDT holders
Lack of control of pressure
transducer
Malfunction of air pressure regulator


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Benefits of Use
Provides guidelines for
standardization of test process
Provides a benchmark
performance standard for
equipment
Minimizes equipment and
operator variability
Promotes greater confidence in
resilient modulus testing and
resulting pavement design
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Current Status of Product
P46 test procedure established
Videos produced and
distributed
Startup procedure published
Startup procedures completed
FHWA
Kansas
North Carolina
Minnesota
University of Rhode Island
Consultant laboratories
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PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES
What is the Resilient Modulus (M
r
) Startup
Procedure Product Line
Why M
r
Testing and the Startup Procedure is
Important
Development of the M
r
Startup Procedure
How to Conduct the M
r
Startup Procedure
Who Should Use the M
r
Startup Procedure
and Why
How to Get Information on the Mr Startup
Procedure?
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Get and Use M
r
Testing and
Startup Procedure Product Line
Download procedure manuals from
LTPP homepage at
www.tfhrc.gov
Order procedure manuals/videos:
Through LTPP homepage
Through LTPP customer service
(Tel Number: 865-481-2967)