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Trigonometric

Functions of Any
Angle
Definitions of Trigonometric Functions of
Any Angle
Let is be any angle in standard position, and let P = (x, y)
be a point on the terminal side of . If is the
distance from (0, 0) to (x, y), the six trigonometric
functions of are defined by the following ratios.

sin
y
r
, cos
x
r
, tan
y
x
, x 0
csc
r
y
, y 0 sec
r
x
, x 0 cot
x
y
, y 0
2 2
r = x y
Let P = (-3, -4) be a point on the terminal side of . Find each of the six
trigonometric functions of .
Solution The situation is shown below. We need values for x, y, and r to
evaluate all six trigonometric functions. We are given the values of x and y.
Because P = (-3, -4) is a point on the terminal side of , x = -3 and y = -4.
Furthermore,
r
x = -3 y= -4
P = (-3, -4)

x
y
-5
5
-5
5
Text Example
The bottom row shows the
reciprocals of the row above.
sin
y
r

4
5

4
5
, cos
x
r

3
5

3
5
, tan
y
x

4
3

4
3
csc
r
y

5
4

5
4
, sec
r
x

5
3

5
3
, cot
x
y

3
4

3
4
Text Example Cont.
Solution



Now that we know x, y, and r, we can find the six trigonometric
functions of .


2 2
2 2
Since r = x , we have r = -3 4 25 5. y
x
y
Quadrant II
Sine and
cosecant
positive
(-,+)

Quadrant I
All functions
positive
(+,+)
Quadrant III
tangent and
cotangent
positive
(-,-)
Quadrant IV
cosine and
secant
positive
(+,-)
The Signs of the
Trigonometric Functions
Example: Evaluating Trigonometric Functions
Given tan =
-2
/3 and cos > 0, find cos and csc .
Solution Because the tangent is negative and the cosine is positive, lies
in quadrant IV. This will help us to determine whether the negative sign in
tan =
-2
/3 should be associated with the numerator or the denominator.
Keep in mind that in quadrant IV, x is positive and y is negative. Thus,
2 2
tan
3 3
y
x



In quadrant IV, y is negative.
x = 3 y= -2
P = (3, -2)

x
y
-5
5
-5
5
r = 13
Thus, x = 3 and y = -2. Furthermore,
2 2 2 2
3 ( 2) 9 4 13. r x y
Now that we know x, y and r, find cos and csc .
3 3 13 3 13
cos
13
13 13 13
x
r

13 13
csc
2 2
r
y

Definition of a Reference Angle


Let be a non-acute angle in standard position
that lies in a quadrant. Its reference angle is the
positive acute angle (prime) formed by the
terminal side of and the x-axis.


Example
a
b
315
45
a
b
P ( a , b )
Find the reference angle , for the following angle:
=315

Solution:
=360 - 315 = 45
Using Reference Angles to Evaluate
Trigonometric Functions
The values of a trigonometric functions of a given
angle, , are the same as the values for the
trigonometric functions of the reference angle,
, except possibly for the sign. A function value
of the acute angle, , is always positive.
However, the same functions value for may be
positive or negative.
A Procedure for Using Reference Angles to
Evaluate Trigonometric Functions
The value of a trigonometric function of any
angle is found as follows:

1. Find the associated reference angle, , and
the function value for .
2. Use the quadrant in which lies to prefix the
appropriate sign to the function value in step 1.
Example: Using Reference Angles to Evaluate
Trigonometric Functions
Use reference angles to find the exact value of each of the following
trigonometric functions.
4
. cos
3
b


. cot
3
c

x
y
135
45
a. sin 135
more more
x
y
4
/3

/3
x
y

/3
-
/3