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2G KPI Training

-Call Setup Success Rate

-Call Drop
Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR) KPI
-CSSR is measured as the number of successful calls to the number of call requests ,
multiplied by 100%.
Let SU be successful calls,RQ be number of request calls.
If requests made are 80 and successful ones are 76,what is our CSSR
Therefore CSSR=97.5%

-The KPI involves Mobile originating(MO) of call until a complete connectivity is set. When
a Mobile Station(MS) wants to make a call it sends a channel request to BTS.After receiving
the request the BTS sends it to BSC.
-When the BSC receives the request it sends a channel activation to BTS for
acknowledgement, and when it gets the acknowledgement from the it, the BSC sends a
command IMM ASS CMD(Immediate Assignment Command) so that signaling channel can
be allocated for a call to a MS.

-A channel can either be a TCH or an SDCCH.

-The process continues up to MSC.

-Factors affecting CSSR
-Availability of resources e.g.TCH,SDCCH
-Hardware of BTS/Transmission equipment.
-Configuration parameters of a cell.
-Interference with other networks using the same frequencies

Call Setup Success Rate KPI

1.Choose the cell with high TCH assignment failure rate.
2.Check if Transmission problem/hardware problem exist. If there any of these
mentioned problems, solve them.
3.If none of these problems are there, check Data Configuration. If there are any
parameter problems solve them.
4.If none of these are there check interference for both intra-network and inter-
network/check Frequency configuration.
5.If this problem is not there check coverage (optimization)
6.If coverage problem is not there check antenna. If it has tilting problems, work on it.
7.If antenna is ok,check repeater
8.If repeater is ok,check the mobile phone.

Call Drop KPI
-This is a scenario in GSM in which an originating call gets terminated not by the
user but due to poor quality of a certain parameter in the system.
-Call drop is affected by a number of factors. In this case right procedures are
involved to have this problem eliminated.
Types of Drops
-Drops to due to Radio _This is due to faulty hardware.eg. BTS hardware,
microwave radios,RF cables, Antennas etc.

-Drops due to Handover _This happens when neighbours are not assigned
within neighboring cells.
-Drops due to BSS_This is the call drop that occurs from a mobile station
up to Transcoder(In this case microwave
links are also involved.

Call Drop(N)=CDR(Radio)+CDR(Handover)+CDR(BSS)+CDR(X)

-To troubleshoot the call drop a number of steps are followed.
-On radio call drop, check BTS hardware, and even
transmission hardware.If these are proved to be ok,check
allocation per sector.

-Handover(HOSR)_Check if neighboring cells are well defined and
assigned to the cell which is involved in call drop. Microwave
links can also be checked in this category

-BSS_Check with the transcoder if drops are still available

TCH_Congestion KPI
-This is scenario that occurs when no resources are available during call set up. This KPI
mostly affects CSSR because it determines TCH assignment.
-A TRX has 8 timeslots which are allocated for various functionalities.
-Timeslot 0=BCCH,Time slot 1=SDCCH,Timeslots,2,3,4,5,and 6 TCH for voice or PDTCH for
-During call set up these TCH timeslots are regarded as resources, so as to check which
ones are free to assign to a mobile station.
-If all resources are used the wordcongestioncomes in.
-In this case an MS will be unable to originate a call because all TCH channels or
resources are used.
-If this problem continues, then the rate at which the congestion is happening increases.
-By the end of the day many people will not be able to make phone calls and this in-turn
affects the CSSR.
-To eliminate congestion a number of steps are involved depending on the cause of
1.Check if TRX are not faulty/or down because this causes more traffic to be sharing
a fewer available TRX.
If TRXs are degraded they can not carry traffic due to low efficiency. It is also
important to check TRX usability or TRX efficiency.

2.Congestion due to increase in number of users.
This happens due to a number of factors e.g. Promotion during a certain hour.
Mere increase of network users in a certain area.
-Solution-Half rate can be involved/add more TRXs/Fourth sector even another site
Can be added if traffic is still there, just for commercial purposes.
-SDCCH stands for stand alone dedicated control channel.
-Its function is for call setup during call
-It is used for signalling.

-SDCCH- Drop,similary with Call Drop this is the number of drops that are made during
call set up against the number of assigned SDCCH channels.
-This is caused due to a number of reasons like hardware failure on BTS which in this
case means faulty TRXs,RA,Cables etc. all those contribute to sdcch drop.

Solution; Check if there are any alarms related to the failure and take required action
i.e.make sure they are replaced, and observe the performance afterwards.
SDCCH Congestion-This is similar to TCH Congestion in a way that it depends on
available resources for an MS to initiate a call.

-When all resources are used there will be congestion. Which means no free resources
to be allocated to an MS to initiate a call.
-When the SDCCH congestion is increased we add other channels, by changing a TCH
to an SDCCH.
-When congestion still increases we add a TRX in order to accommodate all the
required channels.
Hand Over KPI
-This KPI is call handover success rate.
-Its function is to allow an established call to be maintained during user mobility.
-In this case when a user is travelling he is able to be transferred from one cell to
another when adjacencies/neighbours are well defined.
Factor affecting HOSR
1.Availability of Neighbours/Adjacencies
-This is when neighbours are assigned during configuration.
2.Hardware failure -This normally happens when hardware is faulty and
fails to maintain the established call.
3.TCH_Congestion- During handover a BSC checks the availability of
resources of a cell where an originated call has to be transferred.
-When resources/TCH channel is available a call will be handed over to
the targeted cell successfully.
If the cell is busy there will be time as per required interval of the process.
4.Call Drop-This KPI also affect the process of handovers in a way that when
-This is the measurement of a call in period of an hour.
-The measurement also depends on GoS=Grade of Service.