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ETHICS FOR I.T.

PROFESSIONALS
WITH LEGAL ASPECTS IN
COMPUTING
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Chapter 1
Common Ethical Theories
Introduction
The formal study of ethics goes back at least
two thousand four hundred (2,400) years,
traced to the Greek Socrates.

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Introduction Cont.,,
Ethics is a set of beliefs about right and wrong
behavior
Virtues
Habits that incline people to do what is acceptable
Vices
Habits of unacceptable behavior
Value system
Scheme of moral values
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Introduction Cont.,,
Moral code These rules are often expressed
in statements about how people should
behave, and they fit together.
Morality may vary by:
Age
Cultural group
Ethnic background
Religion
Gender

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I. Relativism
Relativism is the theory that there are no
universal moral norm of right and wrong.
Two particular kinds of relativism are
Subjective Relativism
Culture Relativism
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1.1 Subjective Relativism
Subjective Relativism holds that each person
decides right and wrong for himself/herself.
This is captured in the popular expression
Whats right for you may not be right for
me.
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1.2 Cultural Relativism
Cultural Relativism is the ethical theory that
the meaning of right and wrong rests
with a societys actual moral guidelines. These
guidelines vary widely from place to place and
from time to time.
The F2 Epidemic one of the problems of an
ITE instructor during the early 80s is the F2
Epidemic. It is like an epidemic which transfers
to others as quick as a speed of light.
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II. Divine Command Theory
The Divine Command Theory is based on the
idea that good actions are those aligned with
the will of God and bad actions are those
contrary to the will of God.

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II. Divine Command Theory Cont.,,
Bill Gates III and the Mark of the Beast

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Did you know that Bill Gates real name is William Henry Gates
III? Nowadays, he is known as Bill Gates (III where III means the
order of third. So whats so real about this name?

Well is you take all the letters in Bill Gates III and then convert it
into ASCII and then add up all the numbers,, you will get 666,
which us the number of the beast.

B = 66; I = 73; L =76; L = 76; G = 71; A = 65; T = 84; E = 69;
S = 83; I = 1; I=1; I = 1

Coincidence? Perhaps


III. Ethical Egoism
Ethical Egoism is the philosophy that each
person should focus exclusively on his or
herself interest.
In other words, according to ethical egoism,
the morally right action for a person to take in
a particular situation is the action that will
provide that person with the maximum long-
term benefit.
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IV. Consequentialism
The consequentialism, the consequence of an
action justifies the moral acceptability of the
means taken to reach the end.
It is the consequence of an action which
determines whether or not the action is
moral.

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IV. Consequentialism Cont.,
In case of death, permanent disability,
removal from office, or resignation of the
President, the Vice-President shall become the
President to serve the unexpired term.
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V. Kantianism
Deontology or Kantianism is an obligation-
based theory whose chief author was
Immanuel Kant, who lived in the 18
th
century.
This theory emphasizes the type of action
rather than the consequences of that action.
According to Kant, morality is based on pure
reason.
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Establishing a Corporate
Code of Ethics
A code of ethics is a statement that highlights
an organizations key ethical issues and
identifies the overarching values and
principles that are important to the
organization and its decision making.
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Establishing a Corporate
Code of Ethics Cont.,,
Intels Code of Conduct
Intel conducts business with honesty and integrity
Intel follows the letter and the spirit of the law
Intel employees treat each other fairy
Intel employees act in the best interests of Intel
and avoid conflicts of interest
Intel employees protect the companys assets and
reputation
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Requiring Employees to Take Ethics
Training
Comprehensive ethics education program
encourages employees to act responsibly and
ethically
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Including Ethical Criteria in
Employee Appraisals
Some companies base a portion of employee
performance evaluations on:
Treating others fairly and with respect
Operating effectively in a multicultural
environment
Accepting personal accountability
Continually developing themselves and others
Operating openly and honestly with suppliers,
customers, and other employees
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END..

Reference:
* Ethics for I.T. Professionals by Lavinia, C. et.al.
* Ethics in Information Technology by Reynolds

Chapter 1: Common Ethical Theories
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Assignment
What do you think are the most important
factors that helped you define your own
personal code of ethics?
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