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Permanent Mold Casting

Permanent mold casting is a metal casting process that
shares similarities to both sand casting and die casting.
As in sand casting, molten metal is poured into a mold
which is clamped shut until the material cools and
solidifies into the desired part shape. However, sand
casting uses an expendable mold which is destroyed after
each cycle.
Permanent mold casting, like die casting, uses a metal
mold (die) that is typically made from steel or cast iron
and can be reused for several thousand cycles. Because
the molten metal is poured into the die and not forcibly
injected, permanent mold casting is often referred to as
gravity die casting.
Permanent mold casting is typically used for high-
volume production, production of small, simple
metal parts with uniform wall thickness.
Non-ferrous metals are typically used in this
process, such as aluminum alloys, magnesium
alloys, and copper alloys. However, irons and
steels can also be cast using graphite molds.
Common permanent mold parts include gears
and gear housings, pipe fittings, and other
automotive and aircraft components such as
pistons, impellers, and wheels
Permanent Mold Casting

Slush Casting
Slush casting is a variant of permanent molding casting
to create a hollow casting or hollow cast.
It is a technique wherein you rely on the adhesive
properties of a casting substance to create a hollow shell
replica from a negative mold.
A small amount of the casting substance is poured into
the mold. The mold is then rotated or "slushed" around
so the casting medium clings to the walls of the mold.
Depending on the viscosity of the medium, care must be
taken not to create air bubbles. The substance then cures
or dries and the process may either be repeated for
added thickness, or the prosthetic may be pulled as
appropriate for the desired effect.

The process is usually used to cast
ornamental products, such as candlesticks,
lamp bases, and statuary from low-melting-
point materials. A similar technique is used
to make hollow chocolate figures .
Slush casting is also used to skin a mold. It
also allows the skin to have a different
makeup than the underlying "flesh" of a
prosthetic, which thereby mimics real life.

When producing a cast part using the slush casting method, a permanent
mold is employed and set up. The mold is clamped together and prepared
for pouring.
After pouring the mold will set, as solidification begins to take place.
Slush Casting Steps

The main principle of this casting process relies on the fact that when a metal
Casting hardens in a mold, it will solidify from the mold wall towards the inside
of the casting. In other word a metal skin forms first, This skin thickens as more
of the metal casting's material converts to a solid state.
In slush mold casting, during the solidification of the material, when the
solid-liquid boundary has reached a certain point, the mold is turned
over and the remaining liquid metal from the casting is poured out.
This will leave only the solidified skin with the exterior geometry of the
metal cast part and a hollow interior. The longer the metal casting was allowed
to solidify before pouring out the excess metal, the greater the casting's wall
thickness will be.
The cast part is then removed from the die and allowed to cool.
Properties And Considerations Of
Manufacturing By Slush Casting

Slush casting is a type of permanent mold casting, therefore
many of the basic principles of a permanent mold process will
Slush casting is mainly suited to lower melting point materials,
zinc, tin, or aluminum alloys are commonly slush cast in
manufacturing industry.
With this process you need to have a mechanical means of
turning over the mold in order to pour out the molten metal
from the cast part.
When manufacturing by slush casting it is difficult to
accurately control the metal casting's strength and other
mechanical properties.
The casting's internal geometry cannot be effectively
controlled with this process.

Reusable mold, good surface finish, and good
dimensional accuracy are the main advantages.
Ease of inducing directional solidification by
changing the mold wall thickness or by heating or
cooling portions of the mold.
The hollow metal castings manufactured by this
process are lighter than solid parts, and save on
material esults in a finer grain structure than sand
High tooling cost, limited to low-melting-
point metals, and short mold life.
The high tooling costs make this process
uneconomical for small production runs.
When the process is used to cast steel or iron
the mold life is extremely short.
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