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Common-rail Diesel

Diagnosis Training
2
High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail
Goals

Reduce unnecessary replacing of parts
(NTF parts reaches 70% in some cases)

Reduce troubleshooting time

Improve overall customer satisfaction
3
High-tech Diagnosis Course for Common-rail
Objectives

Improve system knowledge

Learn DTC detection conditions

Implement structured and logic troubleshooting
procedures
4
History of Common-rail System
Different variations on Common-rail
3 Generations
Diesel EFI Common-rail
2nd-generation
HP3 Supply Pump
Discharge Valve
Injector Compensation
Code
135 - 160 MPa
3rd-generation
NSR + DPNR
Piezo Injector
160 - 180 MPa
1st-generation
Common-rail
HP2 Supply Pump
Solenoid Injector
135 MPa
Max. Common-
rail Pressure
5
System Overview
Common-rail System Diagram (for IMV)
Fuel Pressure
Sensor
Pressure
Limiter
Supply Pump
SCV
Engine
ECU
Fuel Tank
Injector
NE Signal
G Signal
Various
Signals
Common-rail
Fuel Cooler
Pressure
Switch
Fuel
Filter
Fuel System
Warning Light
Other Injectors
EDU
6
System Overview
Main Components for Common-rail System
Shown for the 1KD-FTV engine on the IMV
Supply Pump
SCV (Suction Control Valve)
Fuel Temp. Sensor
Injector
Engine
Front
Injection Pipe
Fuel Inlet Pipe
Common-rail
Fuel Pressure Sensor
Pressure Limiter
7
System Overview
Features of Common-rail System
High pressure fuel
Stores high pressure fuel
Injection pressure, volume and
timing are controlled electrically
High performance and fuel economy
Low noise and vibration
Clean emission
High pressure injection in all
engine speed range
Higher atomization of fuel
High accuracy engine control
8
System Overview
Sensors and Actuators
Air Flow Meter
Atmospheric
Temp. Sensor
Camshaft
Position Sensor
Intake Restrictor
Valve (Step Motor)
Glow Plug
Turbo Pressure
Sensor
Water Temp.
Sensor
Injector
Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Intake Air
Temp. Sensor
VSV (for Turbo
Pressure Sensor)
E-VRV (for EGR
Valve Control)
VSV (for EGR
Valve Close)
Illustration is for 1CD-FTV on CDE120
9
ECD System Components
Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
HP2 HP3
Type HP2 (Outer Cam) HP3 (Inner cam)
Generation 1st 2nd/3rd
SCV 2 (Time controlled) 1 (Duty-cycle)
Plunger 4 (Radial Type) 2 (Opposite type)
Weight [g (lb.)] 6040 (13.32) 3800 (8.38)
10
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel flow
Click!
Movie
11
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Suction and pumping operation
Click!
Movie
12
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening small)
Click!
Movie
13
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening large)
Click!
Movie
14
ECD System Components
Supply Pump (HP3)
The SCV opening regulates the pumping volume to
control fuel pressure
Controls
SCV
opening
Common-rail
pressure
(Feedback)
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor
SCV



Engine ECU
Fuel Pressure
Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Calculation of
target injection
pressure
[Fuel Pressure Control]
15
ECD System Components
Supply Pump
SCV signals
HP3
16
ECD System Components
Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)
Detects the fuel pressure in common-rail and
provides feedback
Common-rail
Pressure
Sensor Tip
Pressure
Limiter
From Supply Pump
Common-rail
To Injector
[Fuel Pressure Sensor]
17
ECD System Components
Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)
0 160
Common-rail Pressure (MPa)
1.0
4.2
O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

Output characteristic
18
ECD System Components
Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization
Nozzle
Needle
Piston
Solenoid
Coil
Return to
Fuel Tank
From
Common-rail
Nozzle
Spring
Click!
Movie
Nozzle
Spring
Nozzle
Needle
Control
Chamber
Solenoid
Coil
Injector Hole 6 or 8
Injector Pressure 135 180 MPa
Voltage 150 V
19
ECD System Components
Injector
Small injection hall (0.14 mm)
Click!
Movie
0.14 mm
[Top of Injector]
20
ECD System Components
Injector
Difference in the injection of gasoline and common-rail
[Gasoline Engine] [Common-rail Engine]
Engine
ECU
Electricity Time
I
n
j
e
c
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

Electricity Time
Common-rail
Pressure
EDU
Engine
ECU
Constant Low
Pressure
[Approx. 0.3 MPa]
Variable High
Pressure
[30 160 MPa]
Long
High
Injection
Volume
21
ECD System Components
Injector
Injection volume correction
Injector compensation code
QR Code
Injector
Compensation Code
Laser Marking
Compensation Code Type (QR Code)
: Correction Point
Activation Pulse Correction TQ
I
n
j
e
c
t
i
o
n

Q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

22
High
Voltage
Generation
Circuit
ECD System Components
EDU
IJT#1
+B
EDU
Battery
IJT#2
IJT#3
IJT#4
IJF
INJ#1
INJ#2
INJ#3
INJ#4
GND GND
COM1
Control
Circuit
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

Time
150V
0V
Engine
ECU
High
Voltage
23
ECD System Components
EDU
Injector drive signals
IJT#1
INJ#1
COM1
IJF
24
ECD System Components
Overview ECU Inputs
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VA)
Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Fuel Pressure Sensor (PCR)
Ignition Switch (STA)
Basic Parameters
Correction Parameters
Blower Switch (BLW)
A/C Amplifier (AC)
Alternator (ALT)
Engine
ECU
Injector
EDU
EGR Valve
DLC3



25
ECD System Components
Overview ECU Outputs
Injector (Timing and duration)
Suction Control Valve
EDU (Power supply)
Intake Restrictor Valve
Glow Plug
DLC3
Engine
ECU
Various Sensor



EGR Valve
26
ECD System Components
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Crankshaft Position Sensor
27
ECD System Components
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VPA, VPA2)
Hall
ICs
Magnets
28
ECD System Components
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Turbo Pressure
Sensor
VSV (for Turbo
Pressure Sensor)
Engine
ECU
29
ECD System Components
EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
A quick response and high precise are realized by
driving a direct valve shaft
Hall IC
Magnet
Magnet
Steel Layer
Magnet
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor
Rotary Solenoid Type
Torque Motor
30
ECD System Components
EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
Intake restrictor shutter valve position sensor
Intake Shutter Valve
Opening Angle (deg)
O
u
t
p
u
t

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

0
Engine
ECU
VC
VLU
Hall IC
Magnet
E2
0
(Full Close)
70
(Full Open)
Intake Shutter
Valve Position
Sensor
1
5
0.71
20 100
3.51
31
Common-rail Control Systems
Overall
Consists mainly two parts, fuel metering part and fuel
supply part
[Electrical Part]
[Mechanical Part]
Supply Pump
Injector
EDU Various Sensor
Engine ECU
Injection Volume Control
Injection Timing Control
Idle Speed Control
Fuel Pressure Control
Injection rate Control
Turbo Control
EGR Control
Glow Control
Diagnosis
Common-rail
32
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume decision
Engine ECU compares the basic and maximum
injection volumes, and determine the smaller
calculated value to be the final injection volume
Engine ECU
EDU
Injector
Basic Injection
Volume
Maximum
Injection
Volume
Fuel
Pressure
Compensation
Value
Injector
Feedback Value
Decision on
Duration
Comparison
33
ISC* Correction
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Basic injection volume
Engine ECU
Basic Injection
Volume
(Map Data in ECU)
Basic Injection
Volume Correction
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor (VPA)
Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Clutch Switch (CLSW)
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
*: Idle Speed Control
+
34
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Basic injection volume
Basic
Injection
Volume
Engine Speed
[Basic Injection Volume Pattern]
: Amount of Accelerator
Pedal Effort (VPA)
Idle
10%
20%
30%
50%
100%
(Full Load)
35
Overheating Protection
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Maximum injection volume
Intake Air Mass
Engine ECU
Basic/Maximum
Injection Volume
(Map Data in ECU)
Maximum
Injection Volume
Correction
Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)
Air Flow Meter (VG)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)
Fuel Pressure Sensor
(PC, VPC)
36
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Maximum injection volume
Engine Speed
[Maximum Injection Volume Pattern]
Intake Air
Volume-small
Injection
Volume
Varies by
Required Volume
Intake Air
Volume-large
37
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Final injection volume decision
Case of VPA 30% Selects basic injection volume
Engine Speed
Injection
Volume
30% VPA
: Basic Injection Volume
: Maximum Injection Volume
Selects lowest
[Determining Injection Volume]
38
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Final injection volume decision
Case of VPA 100% Selects Max. injection volume
Engine Speed
[Determining Injection Volume]
Injection
Volume
100% VPA
: Basic Injection Volume
: Maximum Injection Volume
Selects
lowest
39
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by intake air
[Intake Air Pressure Correction] [Intake Air Temp. Correction]
Correction
Coefficient
Turbo Pressure Sensor Output (V)
3
1
Increase
Decrease
Correction
Coefficient
Decrease
40
1
Intake Air Temp. (deg)
Overload Protection Pressure Correction
40
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by fuel temperature
[Fuel Temp. Correction]
Correction
Coefficient
Fuel Temperature (deg)
Increase
Decrease
1
40
41
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume correction by water temperature
[Water Temp. Correction]
Correction
Coefficient
Water Temperature (deg)
Increase
40
1
42
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration
Pressure
Limiter
Engine
ECU
NE Signal
G Signal
Various
Signals
Common-rail
Injector
EDU
Fuel Pressure Sensor
From
Supply Pump
Decides opening time of injector
by final injection volume
Controls opening
timing of injector
43
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection duration
Engine ECU
EDU
Injector
Basic Injection
Volume
Maximum
Injection
Volume
Comparison
Volume
Injector
Feedback Value
Injector
Compensation
Value
INJ Time
Calculation
Fuel
Pressure
44
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Volume Control
Injection volume control during starting
Engine ECU
Basic Injection
Volume
Corrections Water Temp. Sensor
Crankshaft Position Sensor
+
Starting Injection Volume
Ignition Switch (STA)
Correction
Coefficient
Water Temperature (deg)
Increase
40
1
45
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Basic injection timing
(injection timing control after started)
Engine ECU
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor (VPA)
Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)
+
EDU
Injector
Injection Timing
Correction
Basic Injection Timing
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
46
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Injection timing control during starting
Engine ECU
Target Injection
Timing Correction
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Ignition Switch (STA)
Crankshaft Position Sensor
(Ne)
47
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Injection Timing Control
Injection timing corrections
Target injection timing = Basic timing + corrections
BTDC
(deg)
Engine Speed (rpm)
15
[Basic Target Injection Timing]
: Amount of Accelerator
Pedal Effort (VPA)
Timing
Advance
(CA)
[Intake Air Pressure Correction]
Intake Air Pressure (PIM)
: Engine Speed
Timing
Advance
(CA)
[Water Temp. Correction]
Engine Speed (rpm)
: Water Temp.
Full Load
Light Load
HOT
COLD
High rpm
Low
rpm
48
Common-rail Control Systems
Idle Speed Control
Target idle speed control
Engine ECU
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Injector
Volume
Correction
Target Engine Speed
Calculation
Actual Engine
Speed
Comparison
Ignition Switch (STA)
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
A/C Amp. [Idle-up Signal] (ACT)
Electric Load
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor
(VPA)
49
Common-rail Control Systems
Idle Speed Control
Feedback correction
Idle speed fluctuations are detected by comparing
t values
Crankshaft Position
Sensor Signal (Ne)
360CA
50
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Pressure Control
Target injection fuel pressure
Controls
SCV
opening
Common-rail
pressure
(Feedback)
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor
SCV



Engine ECU
Fuel Pressure
Sensor
Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Calculation of
target injection
pressure
[Fuel Pressure Control]
51
Common-rail Control Systems
Fuel Pressure Control
Target injection fuel pressure
To control target fuel pressure in common-rail by
SCV
Target Injection Fuel
Pressure
Engine Speed (rpm)
: Calculated Final Injection Volume
MAX
MIN
52
Common-rail Control Systems
Injection Rate Control
Injection rate control
Combustion
Process
Injection
Rate
Heat
Generation
Rate
Ignition Delay
Small
Pre-mixture
Combustion
[Pilot Injection]
High
Injection
Rate
[Delta Injection]
Small Injection
Amount Prior to
Ignition
TDC
Heat Large
Pre-mixture
Combustion
(NOx, Noise)
Improvement
53
Common-rail Control Systems
Injection Rate Control
Pilot injection
Engine ECU
Crankshaft Position
Sensor (Ne)
EDU
Injector
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Pilot Injection
(Volume, Timing, Interval)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor (VPA)
Basic Pilot Timing
Correction
54
Common-rail Control Systems
Injection Rate Control
Main injection timing
Camshaft Position
Sensor Signal (G)
Fuel Quantity
Injection Timing
Pilot Injection
Main
Injection
55
Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
EGR control system
Intake
Restrictor
Valve
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor
Intake Restrictor
Valve Control Motor
Engine
ECU


E-VRV
(for EGR valve control)
Vacuum
Damper
EGR Valve
EGR Valve
Position
Sensor
Engine
Vacuum
Pump
Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor
Turbo Pressure
Sensor
Water Temp.
Sensor
Intake Air Temp.
Sensor
Atmospheric
Pressure
Sensor
56
Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
Intake restrictor valve control system
Step Motor
Air IN
Reduction Gears
Intake
Restrictor Valve
Throttle Valve Fully Opened Switch
Air Out
57
Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
Intake restrictor valve control system
Intake
Restrictor Valve
Intake Restrictor
Valve Position
Sensor
Intake Restrictor
Valve Control
Motor
Engine
ECU
Accelerator Pedal Position
Sensor (VPA)
Crankshaft Position Sensor
(Ne)
Water Temp. Sensor (THW)
Intake Air Temp. Sensor
(THA)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Ignition Switch (STA)
58
Common-rail Control Systems
Other System Operation
Glow control system
Glow
Plug
Ignition
Switch
Engine
Speed
(rpm)
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
Starting Engine
After Glow Time
0
Engine Coolant Temp. [C (F)]
A
f
t
e
r

G
l
o
w

T
i
m
e

(
s
e
c
.
)

120
0 20
(68)
40
(104)