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# CHE3162 Lecture 11

Control
Chapter 16: Seborg
Chapter 14: Marlin
Chapter 9: Smith & Corripio
Learning Objectives
Understand when, why & how to apply
loops
Draw a cascade block diagram and
analyse response
Be able to simplify cascade control loops
to the heat exchanger?
Steam supply
pressure may
vary
Steam flow
will change
without valve
movement
This is a
disturbance
to a
manipulated
variable
Cold fluid
T change
Hot fluid
Steam
TC
101
TT
101
SP
Steam supply pressure P
s
for Manipulated Variable
Disturbances
Cold fluid
T change
Hot fluid
Steam
TT
101
TC
101
TSP
FC
101
FSP
Steam pressure disturbance

T control is the OUTER loop
F control is the INNER loop
TWO PID control loops connected
A main outer loop
An inner secondary loop
Improved response to disturbances
Very common in industry
Requirement: Inner loop must be FASTER
than the outer loop

Only used if there is a disturbance to a
manipulated variable
This disturbance enters the inner loop on
the block diagram
Outer controller sets the setpoint of inner
controller
The inner loop is usually simple
Most frequently flow control
Usually P control with high gain
Sometimes temperature control
Heat exchanger control: Feedback
control
Option 1 Option 2
Smith & Corropio
Smith & Corropio
Cooling water
Variable
supply P
Outer
Temp
Controller
Inner
Flow
controller
TC
101
SP
FC
101
Example of Double Cascade on a
Jacketed (External Coil) Reactor
TC
101
SP
TC
102
Cooling water
Variable T
& supply P
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
FC
101
G
p
Y
F
s
1
T
m
G
D
D
1
+
+
SP

E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

G
V
U
K
c2
+
-
D
2
+
Valve inside inner loop
Inner controller usually P only
Outer loop
Inner loop
F
SP
Simplified Block Diagram
Simplify inner loop replace with single
transfer function
G
p
Y
F
s
1
T
m
G
D
+
+
SP

E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

G
V
U
K
c2
+
-
D
2
+
Outer loop
Inner loop
K
C2
G
v
1+K
C2
G
v
D
1
1

1+K
C2
G
v
1 - Inside the Inner Loop
0.5s 1
0.5
c2
K 1
0.5s 1
0.5
c2
K
F
s
F
SP

F
SP
IF K
c2
= 10
0.083s 1
0.83
F
s
F
SP

0.5
1 +0.5s
U
K
c2
+
-
4e
-2s
1 + 15s
T
F
s
1
T
m
1e
-s
1+5s
T
D
+
+
T
s
E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

P
s
+
1 - Equivalent Block for Inner Loop
F
SP
0.083s 1
0.83
F
s
F
SP

4e
-2s
1 + 15s
T
F
s
1
T
m
1e
-s
1+5s
T
D
+
+
T
s
E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

0.83
1 + 0.083s
2 Impact of second disturbance
1
s
P
s
F

If K
c2
= 10
F
set
0.5
1 +0.5s
U
K
c2
+
-
4e
-2s
1 + 15s
T
F
s
1
T
m
1e
-s
1+5s
T
D
+
+
T
s
E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

P
s
+
Unit change
in P
s
gives unit
change in F
s

Unit change
in P
s
gives 1/6
change in F
s
(final value theorem)
Open loop TF:
0.5s 1
0.5
c2
K 1
1
s
P
s
F

## Closed loop TF:

Reactor with preheater:
feedback control
Maintain constant temperature
in the reactor (controlled variable)
By manipulating fuel to the
preheater furnace
Feed temperature
Is a disturbance
Smith & Corropio
Reactor with preheater:
Smith & Corropio
Better control!
Error integral is
reduced when
control
Deviate less,
return faster to
SP
Smith & Corropio
FEEDBACK
CONTROL
Smith & Corropio
CONTROL
Inner loop
= Preheater loop
Smith & Corropio
CONTROL
Outer loop
= reactor temp loop
Smith & Corropio
Control valve and
valve positioner
positioners
Valve positioner
Normal valve
Manip var is air pressure
Air pressure sets valve
position
Stem position depends on:
friction and wear
Hysteresis up and down
sticky valves
At X kPa, can get different
stem positions - different
flow at same setting
Slave loop
Proportional controller
stem is at the desired
position
Primary controller
MV is stem position
desired flow obtained
Inner loop is a normal feedback loop
Tune by ZN ultimate frequency, ZN quarter decay, or
CohenCoon method
Then start tuning the outer loop :
Set inner loop to automatic mode
Tune by ZN ultimate frequency
A one-step method (Austin and Lopez) also
exists see Smith Ch 9 and table 9.31
Find gain, timeconstant and deadtime of both loops
Set parameters via table

Only used if there is a disturbance to a
manipulated variable
This disturbance enters the inner loop on the
block diagram
Outer controller sets the setpoint of inner slave
controller
The inner loop is usually simple
Inner or slave loop must have a faster response than
outer loop
Can improve feedback control performance for
relatively little cost and effort

2005 EXAM: Question 2
Solution slides by Prof Brisk
You have recently been assigned the task of examining a
cascade control system on a furnace. The previous engineer in
charge of this system has told you that the transfer function
relating gas flow to the burner, F, to the signal from the slave
controller is first order with a gain of 0.2 and a time constant of
10 s. The transfer function relating the change in furnace
temperature , T, to the gas flow, F, is first order + dead time
with a gain of 10, a time constant of 100 s, and a dead time of
1 s. In the absence of control it was found that when the gas
pressure, P, increased by one unit, the gas flowrate reached
63% of its final value in 10 s, and the temperature increased
by 100
o
C at steady state. The master controller is PI and the
slave controller is P.
The topic areas for this question are Block Diagrams,
Solution to Q2a
Draw a block diagram of the system
10e
-s
1 + 100s
T T
s
E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

1ry loop
2ry loop
K
c2
F
U
0.2
1 +10s
+
-
F
s
+
10

1+10s
P

Product of
these = 100
PI control: K
c
(1+1/[T
i
s])
Note block diagram
must have signs shown
for feedback, setpoint
and disturbance
Solution to Q2b / Learning item:
Closed Loop Transfer Eqns & Fns.
Determine the closed-loop transfer functions F/F
S
and F/P as
functions of the secondary controller gain K
c2
, where F
S
is the
inner controller set point
Y
K
c
G
c
U
K
m
G
m
Y
m
K
d
G
d
D
+
+
Y
s
E
+
-
K
v
G
v
K
p
G
p
D
m
G
m
K
p
G
p
K
v
G
v
K
c
G
c
K 1
d
G
d
K
s
Y
m
G
m
K
p
G
p
K
v
G
v
K
c
G
c
K 1
p
G
p
K
v
G
v
K
c
G
c
K
Y

Forward
1+Forward*Feedback
Solution to Q2b - continued
K
c2
F
U
0.2
1 +10s
+
-
F
s
) s 10 1 /( K 2 . 0 1
) s 10 1 /( K 2 . 0
F
F
2 c
2 c
s

2 c
2 c
K 2 . 0 s 10 1
K 2 . 0

s )] K 2 . 0 1 /( 10 [ 1
) K 2 . 0 1 /( K 2 . 0
2 c
2 c 2 c

Ts 1
K

## This standard form allows

clear physical interpretation
Solution to Q2b - continued
K
c2
F
U
0.2
1 +10s
+
-
F
s
) s 10 1 /( K 2 . 0 1
) s 10 1 /( 10
P
F
2 c

2 c
K 2 . 0 s 10 1
10

s )] K 2 . 0 1 /( 10 [ 1
) K 2 . 0 1 /( 10
2 c
2 c

+
10

1+10s
P

K
v
= 0.2 here
Ts 1
K

## We see immediately that the

effect of the disturbance is
reduced by (1 +K
v
K
c2
)
Solution to Q2c
Draw a simplified block diagram of the cascade control system
+
-
U
K
c2
0.2
1 +10s
10

1+10s
P

F

+
F
s T
s
E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

10e
-s
1 + 100s
T
Solution to Q2c
Draw a simplified block diagram of the cascade control system
F
s
F

+
T
s
E
+
-
K
c
(1+1/T
i
s)

10e
-s
1 + 100s
T
s )] K 2 . 0 1 /( 10 [ 1
) K 2 . 0 1 /( K 2 . 0
2 c
2 c 2 c

s )] K 2 . 0 1 /( 10 [ 1
) K 2 . 0 1 /( 10
2 c
2 c

P

Equivalent TF for inner loop
Equivalent
TF for inner loop