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Outline

Evolution of the System Operation


Function

Load Dispatch Centers

The Mandate
Security, Economy, Efciency, Non discriminatory

Jurisdiction

Enforcement of Directions
ELECTRICITY AS A
COODITY

According to Section 2(7) of the Sale of Goods


Act 1930, Electricity is included in the definition
of the ter!

"goods" eans e#ery $ind of o#a%le &ro&erty


and includes electricity, 'ater, gas!

()A*S+,SS,-*. SE)/,0E!
LE!AL FRAE"OR#

Electricity Act 2003

Su%ordinate 1egislations
2
*ational Electricity 3olicy
2
*ational (ariff 3olicy
2
Standards (+etering, connecti#ity)

)egulations 4y 0E)05SE)0

-rders %y E)0s

Grid 0ode

3rocedures %y 0(6
RE!$LATIO%

REGULT!"N are issued in order to a##$y the


%enera$ #rinci#$es in the $a&, inter#retin% the intent
of the $e%is$ature'

(Re%u$ation)$ess( $a&s are a*in to +hristmas toys


re,uirin% (some assem-$y( -ut $ac*in% an
instruction -oo*$et'

The statute is $i*e a tree in the midd$e of &inter.


you can te$$ it/s a tree and $earn somethin% from it'
0o&e1er, &hen they issue the re%u$ation, it/s $i*e
#uttin% the $ea1es on the tree, they %i1e it form and
de2nition, -ut most$y they 2$$ in the -$an* s#aces'
Electricity Supply Act& '()*
Section ++, Licensees to comply -ith
.oard/s directions
Every licensee shall comply with such
directions as the Board may, from time
to time, give him for the purpose of
achieving the maximum of economy and
efciency in the operation of Station
Electricity Supply Act& '()*
Amendment& '(+0
Section 55: icensees to comply with
Board!s directions
"#$Every licensee shall comply with such
#
% reasona&le ' directions as the Board
may, from time to time, give him for the
purpose of achieving the maximum of
economy and efciency in the operation of
(
%his underta)ing or any part thereof'
3
Su-s' 4y ct 353 of 3678 S' 39 :3;
2
Su-s' 4y S' 39 :ii;, i-id, <for Station='
Electricity Supply Act& '()*
Amendment& '(+0
Section ++,icensees to comply with
Board!s directions
*
%"($' +f any dispute arises &etween the Board
and the licensee as to whether any directions
given under su&,section "#$ are reasona&le or
not, it shall &e referred to the -uthority whose
decision thereon shall &e .nal/'
3
!ns' 4y S' 39 :-;, i-id'
Electricity Supply Act& '()*
Amendment& '(+0
Section 11, 2enalties
If any licensee or other person& not 3ein4 the .oard&
fails -ithout reasona3le e5cuse to comply -ith& or 4ive
e6ect to& any direction& order or re7uirement made
under any of the follo-in4 provisions& namely8
9a: Section )8 or
93: Section ++8 or ;
<e shall 3e punisha3le -ith =ne -hich may e5tend to
=ve hundred rupees& and in the case of continuin4
o6ence -ith a further =ne -hich may e5tend to =fty
rupees for each day after the =rst durin4 -hich the
o6ence continues>
Electricity Supply Act& '()*
Amendment& '(('
Section ++, Compliance of directions of the Re4ional
Electricity .oard& etc> 3y licensees or !eneratin4
Companies
"#$ Every licensee shall comply with such reasona&le directions as
the Board may, from time to time, give him for the purpose of
achieving the maximum economy and efciency in the operation of
his underta)ing or any part thereof/
"($ Every licensee or 1enerating 2ompany shall follow all the
directions of the 3egional Electricity Board and shall conduct their
operation in accordance with the instructions of the 3egional oad
4espatch 2entre so as to ensure integrated grid operations/
"*$ +f any dispute arises with reference to the integrated grid
operations as to whether any direction give under su&,section "#$ or
su&,section "($, is reasona&le or not, it shall &e referred to the
-uthority, whose decision thereon shall &e .nal5 so, however,
pending the decision of the -uthority, directions of the 3egional
Electricity Boards or the 3egional oad 4espatch 2entre shall prevail
in the interest of smooth operation of the integration grid/'
Electricity Supply Act& '()*
Amendment& '((*
Section ++, Compliance of directions of
the Re4ional Electricity .oard& etc> 3y
licensees or 4eneratin4 companies
Salient Features
CT$ to operate RLDCs and ST$ to operate SLDCs
RLDC, Ape5 3ody to ensure inte4rated operation in
the concerned re4ion
Compliance of RLDC directions 3y all entities
RLDCs and SLDCs to enforce decisions of the RE.s
Central Commission?State Commission to specify the
fees and char4es to 3e paid to the RLDCs?SLDCs
Electricity Re4ulatory
Commissions Act& '((*

Esta3lishment& functions and


@urisdiction of the Central Electricity
Re4ulatory Commission 9CERC:

Esta3lishment& functions and


@urisdiction of the State Electricity
Re4ulatory Commission 9SERC:
Chan4in4 Role of RE. ? R2C 9':
The Electricity 9Supply: Act of '()* de=ned RE.
under section 9A: (A as
63egional Electricity Board means any of the Boards as constituted
immediately &efore the commencement of the Electricity aws
"-mendment$ -ct, #77# &y a resolution of the 2entral 1overnment
for ensuring integrated operation of the constituent system in
the region/6

Revised de=nition as per the Amendment Act of


'((* -hich reads as follo-s,
63egional Electricity Board means a Board constituted &y a resolution
of the 2entral 1overnment for a speci.ed region for facilitating the
integrated operation of the power system in that region/
As de=ned in the Section A 9++:& Electricity Act ABBC
3egional 8ower 2ommittee means a committee esta&lished &y
resolution &y the 2entral 1overnment for a speci.ed region for
facilitating the integrated operation of the power systems in that
region
Chan4in4 Role of RE. ? R2C 9A:

Section ++91:& Electricity Supply Act


'()*& amended '((*,

Su&9ect to the a&ove provisions of this


section, the 3egional Electricity Board in the
3egion from time to time may mutually
agree on matters concerning the smooth
operation of the integrated grid and
economy and efciency in the operation of
the power system in that region and every
licensee, transmission licensee and others
involved in the operation of the power
system shall comply with the decision of the
3egional Electricity Boards/
Chan4in4 Role of RE. ? R2C 9C:
CERC Order in 2etition %o> CA?ABB0 dated C'DB1DB*& 2ara C',
:nder su&,section "*$ of Section 55, the 3egional oad 4espatch
2entre may give such directions and exercise such supervision and
control as may &e re;uired for ensuring integrated grid operations
and for achieving the maximum economy and efciency in the
operation of the power system in the region under its control/
:nder su&,section "<$, the 3EB is re;uired from time to time to
mutually agree on matters concerning the smooth operation of the
integrated grid and economy and efciency in the power system in
that region/ =he said su&, section &egins with the words su&9ect to
the a&ove provisions of this section, which means that the role of
3EB is supplemental to the role of 342 and 3EB forum provides for
an alternative mechanism in the matter of smooth operation of the
grid and economy and efciency of the power system in the region/
=he 3EB is re;uired to mutually agree on matters of smooth
operation of the integrated grid which means that the parties to the
decision have entered into an agreement/ -s in the case of contract
which is enforcea&le against the parties thereto in the court of law,
the -ct provides for enforcement of the decision through mutual
agreement &y 342 under su&,section "7$/ +n our view, the terms
may mutually agree cannot &e anything other than agreement
through consensus/ +f 3EB is allowed to decide &y ma9ority in the
matter of smooth operation of the grid and economy and efciency
in the region, then it would mean vesting the power of 342 in the
3EB which is not contemplated under the -ct/
Chan4in4 Role of RE. ? R2C 9):

Section A(9):& Electricity Act ABBC,

=he 3egional 8ower 2ommittee in the region


may, from time to time, agree on matters
concerning the sta&ility and smooth
operation of the integrated grid and
economy and efciency in the operation of
the power system in that region/
Electricity Act ABBC
-n -ct to consolidate the laws relating to
generation, transmission, distri&ution, trading
and use of electricity and generally for ta)ing
measures conducive to development of
electricity industry, promoting competition
therein, protecting interest of consumers and
supply of electricity to all areas, rationalisation
of electricity tari>, ensuring transparent
policies regarding su&sidies, promotion of
efcient and environmentally &enign policies
constitution of 2entral Electricity -uthority,
3egulatory 2ommissions and esta&lishment of
-ppellate =ri&unal and for matters connected
therewith or incidental thereto/
System Operation
Function, Load Dispatch
Centers
State Load Despatch Centers
9SLDC:
Section CA9':& Electricity Act ABBC,
=he State oad 4espatch 2entre shall
&e the apex &ody to ensure integrated
operation of the power system in a
State
Functions of SLDC
Section CA 9A:& EA ABBC,
=he State oad 4espatch 2entre shall ,
"a$ &e responsi&le for optimum scheduling and despatch of
electricity within a State, in accordance with the contracts
entered into withthe licensees or the generating companies
operating in that State5
"&$ monitor grid operations5
"c$ )eep accounts of the ;uantity of electricity transmitted
through the State grid5
"d$ exercise supervision and control over the intra,state
transmission system5 and
"e$ &e responsi&le for carrying out real time operations for
grid control and despatch of electricity within the State
through secure and economic operation of the State grid in
accordance with the 1rid Standards and the State 1rid 2ode
Re4ional Load Despatch
Centers
9RLDC:
Section A*9':& Electricity Act ABBC,
=he 3egional oad 4espatch 2entre
shall &e the apex &ody to ensure
integrated operation of the power
system in the concerned region
Functions of RLDCs
Section A* 9C:& EA ABBC,
=he 3egional oad 4espatch 2entre shall ,
"a$ &e responsi&le for optimum scheduling and despatch of
electricity within the region, in accordance with the contracts
entered into with the licensees or the generating
companies operating in the region5
"&$ monitor grid operations5
"c$ )eep accounts of the ;uantity of electricity transmitted
through the regional grid5
"d$ exercise supervision and control over the inter,State
transmission system5 and
"e$ &e responsi&le for carrying out real time operations for
grid control and despatch of electricity within the region
through secure and economic operation of the regional
grid in accordance with the 1rid Standards and the 1rid
2ode
%ational Load Despatch
Centers
9%LDC:
Section A09':& Electricity Act ABBC,
=he 2entral 1overnment may esta&lish
a centre at the national level, to &e
)nown as the ?ational oad 4espatch
2entre for optimum scheduling and
despatch of electricity among the
3egional oad 4espatch 2entres
Functions of %LDC 9':
%ational Load Despatch Center ABB) 9!aEette %oti=cation dated 1DarD
B+:,
%ational Load Dispatch Centre 9%LDC: is the ape5 3ody to ensure
inte4rated operation of the national po-er system> The main
responsi3ilities of %LDC are,
9a: Supervision Over the Re4ional Load Despatch Centres>
93: Schedulin4 and dispatch of electricity over the interDre4ional
linGs in accordance -ith 4rid standards speci=ed 3y the authority
and 4rid code speci=ed 3y Central Commission in coordination -ith
Re4ional Load Dispatch Centres>
9c: Coordination -ith Re4ional Load Dispatch Centres for achievin4
ma5imum economy and eHciency in the operation of %ational !rid>
9d: onitorin4 of operations and 4rid security of the %ational !rid>
9e:Supervision and control over the interDre4ional linGs as may 3e
re7uired for ensurin4 sta3ility of the po-er system under its control>
9f: Coordination -ith Re4ional 2o-er Committees for re4ional
outa4e schedule in the national perspective to ensure optimal
utiliEation of po-er resources>
Functions of %LDC 9A:
%ational Load Despatch Center ABB) 9!aEette %oti=cation dated
1DarDB+:,
94: Coordination -ith Re4ional Load Dispatch Centres for the
ener4y accountin4 of interDre4ional e5chan4e of po-er>
9h: Coordination for restoration of synchronous operation of
national 4rid -ith Re4ional Load Dispatch Centres>
9i: Coordination for transDnational e5chan4e of po-er>
9@: 2rovidin4 Operational feed3acG for national 4rid plannin4
to the Authority and Central Transmission $tility>
9G: Levy and collection of such fee and char4es from the
4eneratin4 companies or licensees involved in the po-er
system& as may 3e speci=ed 3y the Central Commission>
9l: Dissemination Of information relatin4 to operations of
transmission system in accordance -ith directions or
re4ulations issued 3y Central !overnment from time to time>
2rovisions for !rant Of Open
Access
Electricity Act ABBC,

Section C*9A:9d:, CT$

Section C(9A:9d:, ST$

Section )B9c:, Transmission Licensees

Section )A9A:, Distri3ution Licensees


%ational Electricity 2olicy and
2lan
Section C& EA ABBC
9': The Central !overnment shall& from time to time& prepare the
national electricity policy and tari6 policy& in consultation -ith the
State !overnments and the Authority for development of the po-er
system 3ased on optimal utilisation of resources such as coal&
natural 4as& nuclear su3stances or materials& hydro and rene-a3le
sources of ener4y>
9A: The Central !overnment shall pu3lish %ational Electricity
2olicy and tari6 policy from time to time>
9C: The Central !overnment may& from time to time& in
consultation -ith the State !overnments and the Authority& revie-
or revise& the %ational Electricity 2olicy and tari6 policy referred to
in su3Dsection 9': >
9): The Authority shall prepare a %ational Electricity 2lan in
accordance -ith the %ational Electricity 2olicy and notify such plan
once in =ve years, > 2rovided that the Authority in preparin4 the
%ational Electricity 2lan shall pu3lish the draft %ational Electricity
2lan and invite su44estions and o3@ections thereon from licensees&
4eneratin4 companies and the pu3lic -ithin such time as may 3e
prescri3ed
%ational Electricity 2olicy
+>C>1 The spirit of the provisions of the Act is to ensure
independent system operation throu4h %LDC& RLDCs and
SLDCs> These dispatch centers& as per the provisions of
the Act& are to 3e operated 3y a !overnment company or
authority as noti=ed 3y the appropriate !overnment>
<o-ever& till such time these a4encies?authorities are
esta3lished the Act mandates that the CT$ or ST$& as the
case may 3e& shall operate the RLDCs or SLDC> The
arran4ement of CT$ operatin4 the RLDCs -ould 3e
revie-ed 3y the Central !overnment 3ased on
e5perience of -orGin4 -ith the e5istin4 arran4ement ;
+>C>( ; RLDCs and %LDC -ill have complete responsi3ility
and commensurate authority for smooth operation of the
4rid irrespective of the o-nership of the transmission
system& 3e it under C2S$s& State $tility or private sector>
Functions of CERC, Section 1(& EA
ABBC 9':
'>
to re4ulate the tari6 of 4eneratin4 companies o-ned or
controlled 3y the Central !overnment8
to re4ulate the tari6 of 4eneratin4 companies other than those
o-ned or controlled 3y the Central !overnment speci=ed in
clause 9a:& if such 4eneratin4 companies enter into or other-ise
have a composite scheme for 4eneration and sale of electricity in
more than one State8
to re4ulate the interDState transmission of electricity 8
to determine tari6 for interDState transmission of electricity8
to issue licenses to persons to function as transmission licensee
and electricity trader -ith respect to their interDState
operations>
to ad@udicate upon disputes involvin4 4eneratin4 companies or
transmission licensee in re4ard to matters connected -ith
clauses 9a: to 9d: a3ove and to refer any dispute for ar3itration8
to levy fees for the purposes of this Act8
to specify !rid Code havin4 re4ard to !rid Standards8
to specify and enforce the standards -ith respect to 7uality&
continuity and relia3ility of service 3y licensees>
to =5 the tradin4 mar4in in the interDState tradin4 of electricity&
if considered& necessary8
to dischar4e such other functions as may 3e assi4ned under this
Act>
Functions of CERC, Section 1(& EA
ABBC 9A:
The Central Commission shall advise the Central
!overnment on all or any of the follo-in4 matters& namely ,D
9i: formulation of %ational electricity 2olicy and tari6
policy8
9ii: promotion of competition& eHciency and economy in
activities of the electricity industry8
9iii: promotion of investment in electricity industry8
9iv: any other matter referred to the Central Commission 3y
that !overnment>
C> The Central Commission shall ensure transparency -hile
e5ercisin4 its po-ers and dischar4in4 its functions>
)> In dischar4e of its functions& the Central Commission shall
3e 4uided 3y the %ational Electricity 2olicy& %ational
Electricity 2lan and tari6 policy pu3lished under section C>
Appellate Tri3unal for Electricity
Section ''B& EA ABBC,
The Central !overnment shall& 3y
noti=cation& esta3lish an Appellate
Tri3unal to 3e Gno-n as the Appellate
Tri3unal for Electricity to hear appeals
a4ainst the orders of the ad@udicatin4
oHcer or the Appropriate Commission
under this Act>
Central Advisory Committee, Section *B&
EA ABBC
': The Central Commission may& 3y noti=cation& esta3lish
-ith e6ect from such date as it may specify in such
noti=cation& a Committee to 3e Gno-n as the Central
Advisory Committee>
A: The Central Advisory Committee shall consist of not
more than thirtyDone mem3ers to represent the interests
of commerce& industry& transport& a4riculture& la3our&
consumers& nonD4overnmental or4anisations and
academic and research 3odies in the electricity sector>
C: The Chairperson of the Central Commission shall 3e the
e5DoHcio Chairperson of the Central Advisory Committee
and the em3ers of that Commission and Secretary to
the !overnment of India in char4e of the inistry or
Department of the Central !overnment dealin4 -ith
Consumer A6airs and 2u3lic Distri3ution System shall 3e
the ex,ofcio em3ers of the Committee>
Central Advisory Committee, Section *'&
EA ABBC
O3@ects of the Central Advisory
Committee,
The o3@ects of the Central Advisory
Committee shall 3e to advise the
Central Commission on,DD
i> ma@or 7uestions of policy8
ii> matters relatin4 to 7uality& continuity and e5tent
of service provided 3y the licensees8
iii> compliance 3y the licensees -ith the conditions
and re7uirements of their licence8
iv> protection of consumer interest8
v> electricity supply and overall standards of
performance 3y utilities>
Coordination Forum

Section '009':& EA ABBC


The Central !overnment shall constitute
a Coordination Forum consistin4 of the
Chairperson of the Central Commission
and em3ers thereof& the Chairperson
of the Authority& representatives of
4eneratin4 companies and transmission
licensees en4a4ed in interDState
transmission of electricity for smooth
and coordinated development of the
po-er system in the country>
Forum of Re4ulators 9FOR:
Section '00& EA ABBC
9A:The Central !overnment shall also
constitute a forum of re4ulators
consistin4 of the Chairperson of the
Central Commission and Chairpersons of
the State Commissions>
9C:The Chairperson of the Central
Commission shall 3e the Chairperson of
the Forum of re4ulators referred to in
su3Dsection 9A:>
EA ABBC, Roles of A4encies
Section Deals "ith
C* Central Transmission $tility 9CT$:
C( State Transmission $tility 9ST$:
)B Transmission Licensees
)A Distri3ution Licensees
+A Electricity Traders
0' I 0) Tari6 Re4ulations
00 Development of arGet
1B Central Electricity Authority
10 Central Electricity Re4ulatory Commission
9CERC:
*A State Electricity Re4ulatory Commission
9SERC:
*C Joint Commission
''B Appellate Tri3unal for Electricity 9ATE:
Indian Electricity !rid Code
9IE!C:

Technical Rules

!uidelines

Operational Standards

For plannin4& development& maintenance


and operation of po-er system

To 3e follo-ed 3y various a4encies K


participants in the system
Control Area Jurisdiction,
CERC Order +*?ABB*& Suo
oto

!uidelines for demarcation of Control


Areas and Schedulin4 Responsi3ilities
3et-een RLDCs K SLDCs

RLDCs to coordinate
$22s&
!eneratin4 Stations L 'BBB " and havin4 L +BM
share of state outside home state

O3li4ations of RLDCs?SLDCs to-ards


operatin4 personnel
Enforcement of Le4al
2rovisions
Enforcement of SLDC
Directions
Section CC& EA ABBC,
"#$ =he State oad 4espatch 2entre in a State may give
such directions and exercise such supervision and
control as may &e re;uired for ensuring the integrated
grid operations and for achieving the maximum
economy and efciency in the operation of power
system in that State/
"($ Every licensee, generating company, generating
station, su&station and any other person connected
with the operation of the power system shall comply
with the direction issued &y the State oad
4espatch 2entre under su&section "#$
Enforcement of SLDC
Directions
Section CC& EA ABBC,
"@$ +f any dispute arises with reference to the ;uality of
electricity or
safe, secure and integrated operation of the State grid or in
relation to any direction given under su&,section "#$ , it shall
&e referred to the State 2ommission for decision:
8rovided that pending the decision of the State
2ommission, the direction of the State oad 4espatch 2entre
shall &e complied with &y the licensee or generating company
"5$ +f any licensee, generating company or any other person fails
to
comply with the directions issued under su&,section"#$, he
shall &e lia&le to penalty not exceeding rupees .ve lacs/
Enforcement of RLDC
Directions
Section A(& EA ABBC,
"#$ =he 3egional oad 4espatch 2entre may give such
directions and exercise such supervision and control as
may &e re;uired for ensuring sta&ility of grid operations
and for achieving the maximum economy and efciency
in the operation of the power system in the region
under its control/
"($ Every licensee, generating company, generating
station, su&station and any other person connected
with the operation of the power system shall comply
with the direction issued &y the 3egional oad 4espatch
2entres under su&,section "#$/
Enforcement of RLDC
Directions
Section A(& EA ABBC,
"*$ -ll directions issued &y the 3egional oad 4espatch 2entres to
any transmission licensee of State transmission lines or any other
licensee of the State or generating company "other than those
connected to inter State transmission system$ or su&,station in
the State shall &e issued through the State oad 4espatch
2entre and the State oad 4espatch 2entres shall ensure
that such directions are duly complied with the licensee or
generating company or su&,station/
"5$ +f any dispute arises with reference to the ;uality of electricity
or safe, secure and integrated operation of the regional grid or in
relation to any direction given under su&,section "#$, it shall &e
referred to the 2entral 2ommission for decision :
8rovided that pending the decision of the 2entral 2ommission,
the directions of the 3egional oad 4espatch 2entre shall &e
complied with &y the State oad 4espatch 2entre or the
licensee or the generating company, as the case may &e/
"A$ +f any licensee, generating company or any other person fails to
comply with the directions issued under su&,section "($ or su&,
section "*$, he shall &e lia&le to penalty not exceeding rupees
.fteen lacs/
Enforcement of Electricity Act&
ABBC
Section ')A, 2unishment for nonDcompliance of directions 3y
Appropriate Commission
+n case any complaint is .led &efore the -ppropriate
2ommission &y any person or if that 2ommission is satis.ed
that any person has contravened any provisions of this -ct
or rules or regulations made thereunder, or any direction
issued &y the 2ommission, the -ppropriate 2ommission may
after giving such person an opportunity of &eing heard in
the matter, &y order in writing, direct that, without
pre9udice to any other penalty to which he may &e lia&le
under this -ct, such person shall pay, &y way of penalty,
which shall not exceed one la)h rupees for each
contravention and in case of a continuing failure with an
additional penalty which may extend to six thousand rupees
for every day during which the failure continues after
contravention of the .rst such direction
Enforcement of Electricity Act&
ABBC
Section ')C, 2o-er to Ad@udicate
"#$ Bor the purpose of ad9udging under this -ct, the -ppropriate
2ommission shall appoint any of its Cem&ers to &e an
ad9udicating ofcer for holding an in;uiry in such manner as
may &e prescri&ed &y the -ppropriate 1overnment ,after giving
any person concerned a reasona&le opportunity of &eing heard
for the purpose of imposing any penalty/
"($ Dhile holding an in;uiry, the ad9udicating ofcer shall have
power to summon and enforce the attendance of any person
ac;uainted with the facts and circumstances of the case to give
evidence or produce any document which in the opinion of the
ad9udicating ofcer, may &e useful for or relevant to the
su&9ect,matter of the in;uiry, and if, on such in;uiry, he is
satis.ed that the person has failed to comply with the
provisions of section (7 or section ** or section @*, he may
impose such penalty as he thin)s .t in accordance with the
provisions of any of those sections/
Enforcement of Electricity Act&
ABBC
Section ')(, O6ences 3y Companies
"#$ Dhere an o>ence under this -ct has &een committed &y a company, every
person who at the time the o>ence was committed was in charge of and
was responsi&le to the company for the conduct of the &usiness of the
company, as well as the company shall &e deemed to &e guilty of having
committed the o>ence and shall &e lia&le to &e proceeded against and
punished accordingly: 8rovided that nothing contained in this su&,section
shall render any such person lia&le to any punishment if he proves that the
o>ence was committed without his )nowledge or that he had exercised all
due diligence to prevent the commission of such o>ence/
"($ ?otwithstanding anything contained in su&,section "#$, where an o>ence
under this -ct has &een committed &y a company and it is proved that the
o>ence has &een committed with the consent or connivance of or is
attri&uta&le to any neglect on the part of any director, manager, secretary
or other ofcer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other
ofcer shall also &e deemed to &e guilty of having committed such o>ence
and shall &e lia&le to &e proceeded against and punished accordingly/
Explanation/ , Bor the purpose of this section,,
6company6 means a &ody corporate and includes a .rm or other
association of individuals5 and
6director6, in relation to a .rm, means a partner in the .rm/
Conclusion

Electricity La-s are evolved from the


SocioDTechnoDEconomic necessities

"hat is sacrosanct today may lose


relevance in future

%ature and contents of the statute are


al-ays under the microscope
The Welfare of the People is the Chief Law
ThanG You NN
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