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INTRODUCTION TO

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

by



Introduction to deep foundations
Classifications of deep foundations
Introduction to pile foundations
Uses of pile foundations
Classifications of pile foundations
Design of pile foundation.
Pile Spacing
Negative Skin Friction
Liquefaction of soil
Pile installation methods


Outline
2
Figure 1-1 End bearing piles Figure 1-2 Friction or cohesion pile
Introduction
It is a foundation unit that provides support for a
structure by the toe resistance (end resistance) in a
competent soil or rock at some depth below the
structure and/or by the shaft resistance (skin
resistance) in the soil or rock in which it is placed

3
Depth/Width >4
Low Bearing Capacity of soil .
Non availability of proper bearing stratum
at shallow depths.
Heavy loads from the super structure for
which shallow foundation may not be
economical or feasible
When We Use Deep Foundation

4
The types of deep foundations are

Pile

Well-foundation

Caissons or well foundations are heavier in
section and they are sunk to the required
depth.
Classification of Deep Foundations
5
A timber, steel or reinforced concrete post
usually vertical, used as a structural element
for transferring the loads at the required depth
in the deep foundations is called PILE

These are the long slender members either
driven or cast-in-situ and may be subjected to
vertical or lateral or vertical plus lateral loads


Pile Foundations
6
Piles may be used for the following purposes,
End Bearing or compressive strength: To
transfer the load through a soft soil to a suitable
bearing stratum by means of end bearing of the
piles.

Scour depth: To transfer the load through Water,
for any hydraulic structure because in this case,
we have to keep the foundation at the scour depth
below the bed level. For River Ravi Scour depth
is 30 to 35m below the bed. So if we go for the
shallow foundation, we will have to make an open
pit, coffer dam diversion of River etc. and it is
highly uneconomical
7
Use of Pile Foundation
Tension or Uplift: For a very tall structure (tower),
even if the Soil is very good, but here the
overturning is the problem. So either make the
base very large (Thick raft) or make deep
foundation.

Vibration Control: If a machine is generating high
vibrations, then to absorb the vibrations either
make a massive block or the next choice is deep
foundation, But Massive black is very expensive.
e.g. At Terbela the shaft of Turbine is 2m and when
it runs there area a lot of vibrations.

8
Use of Pile Foundation contd..
Anchor Piles: To provide Anchorage against
horizontal pull from sheet piling walls or other pulling
forces
Fender piles: To protect Water front structure
against impact from ships or other floating objects
Batter piles: To resist large horizontal or inclined
forces
Rapid Construction: Piles can also be used if the
time schedule has much importance
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Use of Pile Foundation contd..
IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 1 : 2010 Driven cast in-situ concrete piles
IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 2 : 2010 Bored cast-in-situ piles
IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 3 : 2010 Driven precast concrete piles
IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 4 : 2010 Bored precast concrete piles
IS 2911 : Part 2 : 1980 Timber piles
IS 2911 : Part 3 : 1980 Under reamed piles
IS 2911 : Part 4 : 1985 Load test on piles
IS 5121 : 1969 Safety code for piling and other deep
foundations
IS 6426 : 1972 Specification for pile driving hammer
IS 6427 : 1972 Glossary of Terms Relating to Pile Driving
Equipment
IS 6428 : 1972 Specification for pile frame
IS 9716 : 1981 Guide for lateral dynamic load test on piles
10
Indian Standards on Piles
IS 6428 : 1972 Specification for pile frame
IS 9716 : 1981 Guide for lateral dynamic load test on piles
IS 14362 : 1996 Pile boring equipment - General requirements
IS 14593 : 1998 Bored cast-in-situ piles founded on rocks
Guidelines
IS 14893 : 2001 Non-Destructive Integrity Testing of Piles
(NDT) -Guidelines

11
Indian Standards on Piles contd..
Top layers of soil are highly compressible for
it to support
structural loads through shallow foundations
Rock level is shallow enough for end bearing
pile
foundations provide a more economical design
Lateral forces are relatively prominent.
In presence of expansive and collapsible
soils at the site.
Offshore structures

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Need of Pile Foundation
Strong uplift forces on shallow foundations due to
shallow
water table can be partly transmitted to Piles

For structures near flowing water (Bridge abutments,
etc.)
to avoid the problems due to erosion
13
Need of Pile Foundation contd..
Classification of Piles
With respect to:
Mode of construction
Material of construction
Function of pile
Shape
Size
14
Classification based on
Construction Material
Timber piles: (Trunk of a Wooden tree, the
oldest pile)
Concrete pile
Steel pile
Composite pile: (Certain portion by one
material and certain portion by other
material)

15
Classification Based on Structural
Behavior
Some times skin friction is predominant
and sometimes the End bearing so
Friction Pile
If major part is taken by the shaft of pile. When very
Weak soils of large depths are available.
End Bearing Pile
When a soil layer of reasonable strength is available
at a reasonable depth.
Combination of Two. (Friction cum
bearing piles)
16
Classification Based on function of Pile
Compression pile: (To resist the comp. load)
Tension pile or Anchor pile
Compaction pile: (granular soil i.e. very loose sand
can be compacted by driving the piles at one place,
then are pulled out and driven at the next place, in
this way sand is densified)
Fender piles: (Used near sea-part to protect the
Harbour, just to absorb the impact of floating objects)
Batter piles: (Provided at an inclination their stability
is more against overturning)
Sheet piles.(To reduce seepage or to provide lateral
stability)
17
Classification Based on Shape
Round Piles
Square Piles
Octagonal Piles
I-Shaped Piles
Straight Piles
Tapered Piles
Bell-Bottom Piles
Screw Piles

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Large Dia Pile: ( > 24)
Small Dia Pile: ( > 6 to 24)
Micro Dia Pile: (= 4 to 6)
(These are used for specific projects I.e. for Repair )

Root Pile(Rectangular) Used for special
projects i,e for under pressing, Repair)
If > 24 then These are called as pier

19
Classification Based on Size
Steel Piles
Pipe piles
Rolled steel H-section piles
Concrete Piles
Pre-cast Piles
Cast-in-situ Piles
Bored-in-situ piles
Timber Piles
Composite Piles

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Types of Piles
Usual length: 15 m 60 m
Usual Load: 300 kN 1200 kN
Advantage:
Relatively less hassle during installation and easy to achieve
cutoff level
High driving force may be used for fast installation
Good to penetrate hard strata
Load carrying capacity is high
Disadvantage
Relatively expensive
Noise pollution during installation
Corrosion
Bend in piles while driving
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Steel Pile :- Facts
Pre-cast Piles:
Usual length: 10 m 45 m
Usual Load: 7500 kN 8500 kN
Cast-in-situ Piles:
Usual length: 5 m 15 m
Usual Load: 200 kN 500 kN
Advantage:
Relatively cheap
It can be easily combined with concrete superstructure
Corrosion resistant
It can bear hard driving
Disadvantage:
Difficult to transport
Difficult to achieve desired cutoff
22
Concrete Pile :- Facts
In loose cohesionless soils
Densifies the soil upto a distance of 3.5 times the pile diameter
(3.5D) which increases the soils resistance to shearing
The friction angle varies from the pile surface to the limit of
compacted soil
In dense cohesionless soils
The dilatancy effect decreases the friction angle within the zone
of influence of displacement pile ( 3.5D approx )
Displacement piles are not effective in dense sands due to
above reason.

23
Displacement Piles
In cohesive soils
Soil is remolded near the displacement piles (2.0 D
approx.) leading
to a decreased value of shearing resistance.
Pore-pressure is generated during installation
causing lower
effective stress and consequently lower shearing
resistance.
Excess pore-pressure dissipates over the time and
soil regains its strength.
Example: Driven concrete piles, Timber or Steel
piles
24
Displacement Piles contd..

Due to no displacement during installation, there is no heave in
the ground.
Cast in-situ piles may be cased or uncased (by removing
casing as concreting progresses).
They may be provided withreinforcement if economical with
their reduced diameter.
Enlarged bottom ends (three times pile diameter) may be
provided in cohesive soils leading to much larger point bearing
capacity.

25
Non-Displacement Piles

Soil on the sides may soften due to contact
with wet concrete
or during boring itself. This may lead to loss
of its shear
strength.
Concreting under water may be challenging
and may resulting in wasting or necking of
concrete in squeezing ground.

Example: Bored cast in-situ or pre-cast
piles
26
Non-Displacement Piles contd..
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30
31
32
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34
35
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NECESSARY INFORMATION

Site investigation data as laid down under IS 1892 up to a
depth not less than 10m beyond the pile founding level.

Geotechnical interpretation report based on geotechnical
report clearly indicating soil strata suceptible to liquefaction
during earthquake.
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Rock socketed piles can be designed to carry
compressive loads in side wall shear only or end bearing
only, or a combination of both. The most important factors
that influence the design procedure are the strength,
degree of fracturing and modulus of deformation of rock
mass, the condition of the walls and base of the socket
and the geometry of the socket.

Depending upon the type of rock, any one of the following
methods shall be used for computing compression
capacity:
a) Based on uniaxial compressive strength of rock,
b) Based on limit pressure of rock,
c) Based on shear strength of rock, and
4) Structural strength of pile.

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49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
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63
64
65
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Liquefaction of Soils


History
Introduced by Arthur Casagrande (1935-38)

Serious attention because of Japan, Alaska and
Nigata earthquake in 1964.

Evidence of liquefaction found in prior earthquakes

Recent Bhuj earthquake on 26 January 2001 in India



73
Occurs in saturate sands,
commonly near rivers,
lakes, bays, and oceans


Foundation failures,
structures damages

Kobe, Japan, 1995
74
Where and How
Why liquefaction
Rising pore water pressure reduced
effective stress reduced shear strength


In extreme case effective stress turns
zero loses shear strength soil acts
like fluid
75
Factors Affecting Liquefaction
GRAIN SIZE.
INITIAL RELATIVE DENSITY.
VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS.
INFLUENCE OF EFFECTIVE STRESS.
PERIOD OF LOADING.
PREVIOUS STRAIN HISTORY.
DRAINAGE AND DEPOSIT.
TRAPPED AIR.
76
Consequence of Liquefaction
Settlements

Lateral spreads

Lateral flows

Loss of lateral support

Loss of bearing support

Flotation of bearing supports
77
78
FAILURE OF RETAINING WALL:
RETAINING WALL TOPPLES AS THE THE
PRESSURE IN THE BACKFILL IS
INCREASED DUE TO LIQUEFACTION.

COLLAPSE OF BRIDGE:
DISPLACEMENT OF THE COLUMN DUE TO
LATERAL SPREADING AS A RESULT OF
LIQUEFACTION DEMOLISHES THE
STRUCTURE.
79

RETAINING WALL COLLAPSE IN KOBE, JAPAN
80
COLLAPSE OF BRIDGE IN KOBE, JAPAN
81
COLLAPSE OF SUPERSTRUCTURE OF SHOWA BRIDGE, NIIGATA
EARTHQUAQKE
82
TILTING OF BUILDINGS IN NIIGATA, JAPAN IN 1964
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FISSURE IN THE SOCCER FIELD, CAUCETE EARTHQUAKE 1977
Factors Affecting Liquefaction
Soil type
Grain Size and Its Distribution
Initial Relative Density
Vibration Characteristics
Location of Drainage and Dimension of Deposit
Surcharge Load
Method of Soil Formation
Period Under Sustained Load
Previous Strain History
Trapped Air
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PREVIOUS STRAIN HISTORY: IF A SOIL HAS
PREVIOUSLY BEEN SUBJECTED TO STRESS, THE CHANCES OF
LIQUEFACTION ARE INCREASED.

TRAPPED AIR: EXCESS PORE PRESSURE DISSIPATE IN AIR
TRAPPED SOIL VOIDS, HENCE REDUCING LIQUEFACTION.
HAZARDS DUE TO LIQUEFACTION
LARGE AND DIFFERENTIAL
SETTLEMENT.

TILTING OF STRUCTURES.

RUPTURE OF STRUCTURES.

CRACKS IN HIGHWAYS.
86
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GRAIN SIZE : FINE AND UNIFORM SANDS ARE MORE PRONE TO
LIQUEFACTION THAN COARSE GRAINED ONES.

INITIAL RELATIVE DENSITY: AS INITIAL DENSITY
INCREASES, CHANCES OF LIQUEFACTION ARE REDUCED.

VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS: MORE THE
VIBRATION OCCURS MORE WILL BE THE LIQUEFACTION.

88
DRAINAGE AND DEPOSITS: IF THE DRAINAGE
FACILITY PROVIDED FOR THE SOIL IS MORE, THE CHANCES OF
LIQUEFACTION IS LESS.

INFLUENCE OF EFFECTIVE STRESS: HIGHER
THE INITIAL CONFINING PRESSURE, LOWER WILL BE THE
LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL.

PERIOD OF LOADING: SAND DEPOSITS,
UNDISTURBED FOR LONGER DURATION ARE RESISTANT TO
LIQUEFACTION.


A phenomenon when the
static equilibrium is destroyed
by static or dynamic loads
with low residual strength
Residual strength is the
strength of a liquefied soil
Earthquakes, blasting, and
pile driving are all example of
dynamic loads that could
trigger flow liquefaction

89
Failures mode of flow liquefaction
Large and rapid
movements

Disastrous effects,
like a remarkable
bearing capacity
failure.
Kawagishi-cho apartment
in Niigata earthquake 1964
90

A liquefaction phenomenon

Triggered by cyclic loading

Occurring with static shear
stresses lower than soil
strength

Deformations due to cyclic
mobility develop incrementally

Lateral spreading is a common
result of cyclic mobility

1976 Guatemala earthquake
caused lateral spreading
91
Types of Failure
Cyclic Mobility

Overturning

Sand Boiling

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Evaluation of liquefaction potential
Factor of Safety against liquefaction
FS = CRR / CSR
SEED and IDRISS (1971)
CSR= av/vo = 0.65(MWF) (amax/g) (vo / vo)*rd
Where:
av = average cyclic shear stress
MWF = Magnitude Weighting Factor = (M)2.56 /173
M = earthquake magnitude, commonly M= 7.5
amax = maximum horizontal acceleration at ground surface
g = acceleration due gravity = 9.81m/s2
vo = total vertical overburden stress
vo = effective vertical overburden stress
z = depth in meters (for z>25m)
rd = stress reduction factor, typically (1-0.015z)
93
Cyclic Resistance Ratio
CRR can be evaluated by Laboratory and field tests such as:

Cyclic Triaxial test
Hollow cylindrical torsion test
cyclic simple shear test
Standard penetration test
Cone penetration test (CPT)
Piezo Vibrocone test
Siesmic cone penetration test(SCPT)

But most commonly SPT and CPT test are conducted, as they
are popular.
94
SPT liquefaction assessment chart :

Correction for effective overburden stress (CN)
Correction for hammer energy ratio (CE)
Correction for bore hole diameter (CB)
Correction for samplers (CS)
Correction for rod length (CR)
(N1)60 = Nm CN CE CB CR CS


SPT based liquefaction assessment chart (modified from Seed et al.1985)
95
CPT liquefaction assessment chart :
The CPT is more consistent and repeatable
Continuous penetration records are available
Liquefaction assessment chart is based on normalized tip resistance

CPT- based liquefaction assessment chart (modified from Robertson PK and wride CE in 1998)
q
96
Remedial Measures
Compaction
Drainage
Grouting

Deep
Foundation

97
Conclusions
Because liquefaction only occurs in saturated soil, its effects are
most commonly observed in low-lying areas near bodies of water
such as rivers, lakes, bays, and oceans.

Cyclic shear stress to initiate liquefaction was higher than the cyclic
shear stress induced by the earthquake.

Sands were considered to be the only type of soil susceptible to
liquefaction, but liquefaction was also observed in gravel and silt.

Soil of medium to fine texture that is clay, silty clay, loam, and
gravelly soils with well to moderate drainage has no liquefaction
vulnerability.


98
Contd.
The SPT- and the CPT-based liquefaction assessment charts are
the preferred means of evaluating liquefaction potential .

They are the most reliable because they are supported by the
largest databases on the occurrence of liquefaction .

The SPT test provides soil samples for identification of soil type
and many empirical design procedures are based on the SPT, N.

The CPT provides the best picture of soil stratification and is the
most reliable penetration test. Many design procedures are also
based on CPT data .

If the CPT is run with a seismic cone, the shear wave velocities
can be measured at the same time. The shear moduli can be
readily obtained from the velocity data and can be used as input
into dynamic and static analyses.
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Loads Applied on Pile
Combinations of vertical, horizontal and moment
loading may be applied at the soil surface from the
overlying structure
For the majority of foundations the loads applied to the
piles are primarily vertical
For piles in jetties, foundations for bridge piers, tall
chimneys, and offshore piled foundations the lateral
resistance is an important consideration
The analysis of piles subjected to lateral and moment
loading is more complex than simple vertical loading
because of the soil-structure interaction.
Pile installation will always cause change of adjacent
soil properties, sometimes good, sometimes bad.

101
Design of Pile Foundation
Basic checks for pile forces

1. Which pile will have the
highest axial load?
2. Which pile will have the
lowest axial load?
3. Which pile will be subject to
the highest horizontal load?
4. Which pile will be subject to
the highest bending
moments?
X
Y
Z
M
x
M
y
F
x
F
z
F
y
1 2
3
4
3D c-c
Pile force Calculation
By rivet theory

force on a pile =


2 2
r
r M
r
r M
N
P
P
i y
i x
pile
103
Basic steps for pile design
Calculate axial force and moment
Check for service load within safe
capacity of pile ( Geotechnical)
Check for crack width
Check for ULS design ( Structural
Capacity)
Check for permissible stress in concrete
and reinforcement
Minimum r/f shall be 0.4% (IS:2911)
Clear cover 75 mm

104
Design of Pile Cap
Design by Strut and tie model method
(up to 4 piles)
More flexural reinforcement as compared to
beam theory
No shear reinforcement
Reinforcement to be provided in bands over
pile heads
Nominal reinforcement in other area (80%-
20% as per IRC)
Appendix A of American Concrete Institute
Building Code, ACI 318-2005

105
Design of Pile Cap
Design by Flexural Theory ( 5 or more
piles)
Designed as a beam
Minimum/Design shear reinforcement
shall be provided
Uniform distribution of main reinforcement
106























Pile Design Methodology

Forces are Worked out at the Bottom of Pier/Column & Concomitant
Forces are taken
Example









These Forces are Used as input for the calculation of Pile Load using
Rivet Analogy / Soil Structure Interaction

STAAD model is prepared for the Soil Structure interaction, using Soil
springs corresponding to Soil Parameters in Geotechnical Investigation
Report.

Horizontal Load is applied at the CG of Pile Cap, Moment Factor is
worked out for static Spring values and Dynamic Spring Values





Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz Load Case
Min Fx -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 312.00
Max Fx -757.91 13948.97 -1207.62 -2794.01 37.97 1759.79 203.00
Min Fy -757.91 13948.97 -1207.62 -2794.01 37.97 1759.79 203.00
Max Fy -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 313.00
Min Fz -764.89 14043.79 -1211.04 -2797.39 35.89 1796.10 313.00
Max Fz -761.53 14946.20 -1188.33 -2657.36 41.94 1777.19 202.00
Min Mx -764.89 14043.79 -1211.04 -2797.39 35.89 1796.10 313.00
Max Mx -761.53 14946.20 -1188.33 -2657.36 41.94 1777.19 202.00
Min My -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 311.00
Max My -761.53 14946.20 -1188.33 -2657.36 41.94 1777.19 202.00
Min Mz -757.91 13948.97 -1207.62 -2794.01 37.97 1759.79 203.00
Max Mz -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 312.00
107























Pile Design Methodology

These moment coefficents are multiplied with the Horizontal shear
force to find the moment at the pile top

These Forces (Vertical and Moment) are used as input for SLS design
checks - calculation of Concrete stresses in Pile and Stresses in
Reinforcement, crack width

For ULS case Ultimate moment capacity is worked out and interaction
ratio (M/Mu) is checked

Ultimate Shear Stresses are Checked according to IRS-CBC 1997
Ultimate Shear stress in concrete is calculated as per percentage area of
tension reinforcement and grade of concrete

Enhanced shear strength shall be calculated using Shear enhancement
factor, depth factor.
108
Example for Design of 6 Pile Group System














Pile Layout






















Pile -3
0.75 3.5 3.5
.75
.75
3.5
.75
109























Number of piles (N) `= 6
SIZE OF PILE CAP = 8.5 X 4.5 m
DEPTH OF PILE CAP = 1.5 m
WT. OF PILE CAP = 146 T
DEPTH OF EARTH FILL = 0.50 m
DENSITY OF SOIL = 2 t/m
3

WT. OF SOIL = 36 T
Factor for the moment using
STAAD (Static)
= 2.8 T-m/t
Factor for the moment using
STAAD (Dynamic)
= 2.2 T-m/t
110




Pile Modeling

The pile foundation has two parts pile and pile cap. The model was
idealized as per the exact dimensions. The piles are modelled to exact
diameter and pile cap with their thickness. To account for the rigidity of
the pile cap, rigid members were used to connect the top of pile cap to
piles.

The pile cap was idealized as a plate of thickness. The pile cap was
meshed for finite element analysis of the cap and equitable distribution
of the load.
To simulate the soil conditions, the stiffness was applied as springs of
equivalent stiffness.

For Seismic case, stiffness constraints are not provided for a depth upto
liqufiable starta. This is to account for the liquefaction behavior of the
soil as the effective shear reduces close to zero.

3D Model of 6 Pile Group

111
The stiffness values are determined from the SPT values from geotechnical
Parameters in the lab test results reported in Geotechnical Report.

The stiffness calculations are performed from the IS 2911 Part I Section 2.

Stiffness of soil is calculated using , K= z*dl*h
Z : Depth
Dl : Lateral Deflection
h : Determined from Table 3 based on SPT Values









Table 3 of IS 2911 Part 1 Section 2

For seismic cases,
K (Dynamic) = 3.5 x K (Static)
112
Model Analysis
Model are analyzed to study the behavior of the pile subjected to lateral laods. To aim
of the analysis is to arrive at bending moment coefficients. That is bending moment
of the pile , when subjected to unit shear force. This coefficient can be used in further
analysis by multiplying with shear forces acting on pile top.

The unit shear forces were realized as Unit force in X and Z direction acting on pile
top

Unit force mutiply by number of piles in the pile group shall be applied on the centre
of gravity of pile cap

Pile Analysis with Stiffness Property



113



BM Diagram 6 Pile Static
BM Diagram 6 Pile Dynamic
114




Calculation of Pile Load

The maximum load on the foundation is to be identified. The load on the pile is
distributed as per the rivet analogy and loading on individual pile load are
determined. The water table is taken at ground level. Hence the weights of the
material taken are submerged weights.

Pu=P+Pp+Ps

Pu : Total load on the piles
P : Total load on the structure (At the Pier Bottom)
Pp : Weight of the Pile cap
Ps : Weight due to the soil

Force Distribution in Pile











115



















S.No. rL rT rL
2
rT
2

(m) (m) (m
2
) (m
2
)
1 -3.5 1.75 12.25 3.06
2 0 1.75 0.00 3.06
3 3.5 1.75 12.25 3.06
4 -3.5 -1.75 12.25 3.06
5 0 -1.75 0.0 3.1
6 3.5 -1.75 12.3 3.1
= 49.0 18.4
Pile Load = V/n + M
L
.r
L
/r
L
2
+ M
T
.r
T
/ r
T
2

No. of piles = 6

116
Pile Design
The load on individual pile was determined for, SLS Normal, SLS Seismic load , ULS
Normal, ULS Seismic combination.

For normal case, SLS Normal and ULS Normal load combinations are determined. The
load combinations are forces and moments were maximum and minimum in all three
directions were identified for further analysis as limiting cases.

The bending moment coefficients for static and dynamic cases from the model are
employed to determine the moment at the top of the pile due to various loads.








TRANS. -TX LONG. -TZ
312.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06
203.00 1421.91 -77.26 -123.10 -469.46 63.50 307 273 240 295 261 228 145.34 24.2 53.50
203.00 1421.91 -77.26 -123.10 -469.46 63.50 307 273 240 295 261 228 145.34 24.2 53.50
313.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06
313.00 1431.58 -77.97 -123.45 -470.33 66.13 309 275 242 296 263 229 146.01 24.3 53.74
202.00 1523.57 -77.63 -121.13 -452.58 64.72 323 290 258 310 278 246 143.87 24.0 52.93
313.00 1431.58 -77.97 -123.45 -470.33 66.13 309 275 242 296 263 229 146.01 24.3 53.74
202.00 1523.57 -77.63 -121.13 -452.58 64.72 323 290 258 310 278 246 143.87 24.0 52.93
311.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06
202.00 1523.57 -77.63 -121.13 -452.58 64.72 323 290 258 310 278 246 143.87 24.0 52.93
203.00 1421.91 -77.26 -123.10 -469.46 63.50 307 273 240 295 261 228 145.34 24.2 53.50
312.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06
P6
(t)
RESULTANT
SHEAR (t)
SHEAR
FORCE PER
PILE (t)
VERTICAL
LOAD- N
(t)
HORIZONATL FORCE AT
BASE OF PIER (t)
LONG.
MOMENT-Mx
(t-m)
TRANSVERSE
MOEMNT-M
Z
(t-m)
P5
(t)
LOAD
COMBINATIONS
(FROM STAAD)
AT NODE 1 IN ST1 MODEL
P1
(t)
P2
(t)
SLS LOAD
COMBINATIONS
MAX. MOMENT
AT TOP OF
PILE (t-m)
P3
(t)
P4
(t)
117











MAX. MIN.
NORMAL SLS 331 228
SEISMIC SLS 386 85
25
46
LOAD CASE
VERTIAL LOAD (t)
HORIZONTAL FORCE PER
PILE (t)
MAX.
TRANS. -TX LONG. -TZ
1306.80 -220.09 -158.31 -694.88 -907.38 211 162 112 384 335 285 271.12 45.2 70.99
1315.20 96.82 -58.39 -125.28 1003.92 354 345 336 163 154 145 113.06 18.8 29.32
1081.03 -106.77 -237.94 -1203.70 -304.03 268 182 96 325 239 153 260.80 43.5 72.51
1580.62 9.48 -179.71 -777.12 -199.23 330 275 219 368 313 257 179.96 30.0 50.97
1184.08 -118.44 -248.06 -1243.29 -289.50 289 200 111 344 255 166 274.88 45.8 76.27
1379.16 -1.32 31.13 419.64 373.74 266 296 326 195 225 255 31.16 5.2 8.83
1184.08 -118.44 -248.06 -1243.29 -289.50 289 200 111 344 255 166 274.88 45.8 76.27
1379.16 -1.32 31.13 419.64 373.74 266 296 326 195 225 255 31.16 5.2 8.83
1521.10 -125.98 -97.27 -322.59 215.85 327 304 281 286 263 240 159.17 26.5 41.85
1564.77 16.14 -178.20 -767.23 -222.62 325 270 215 367 312 258 178.93 29.8 50.65
1145.00 -204.91 -148.42 -658.78 -934.21 179 132 85 357 310 263 253.02 42.2 66.28
1477.00 81.64 -68.28 -161.38 1030.75 386 375 363 190 178 167 106.43 17.7 28.12
P3
(t)
P4
(t)
P6
(t)
RESULTANT
SHEAR (t)
SHEAR
FORCE PER
PILE (t)
VERTICAL
LOAD- N
(t)
HORIZONATL FORCE AT
BASE OF PIER (t)
LONG.
MOMENT-Mx
(t-m)
TRANSVERSE
MOEMNT-M
Z
(t-m)
P5
(t)
LOAD COMBINATIONS
(FROM ST1)
seismic
P1
(t)
P2
(t)
SLS LOAD
COMBINATIONS
MAX. MOMENT
AT TOP OF
PILE (t-m)
118
Reinforcement Design
The reinforcement and detailing were analyzed using Oasys Adsec software. The
software takes the properties, materials used, reinforcement bars arrangement,
loads and moments at a given section The software gives the crack analysis, stress
and M/Mu ratio as outputs.








Cross Section of Pile with Reinforcement

Main Reinforcements
The moment and loads are given as input to the software.

Concrete Grade
Reinforcement Grade
Clear Cover
Dimension detail of Pile (Pile Diameter)
Reinforcement Nos. and Area along with distribution pattern










119
Output is taken for SLS load combinations and ULS Load Combinations

During SLS Design checks:

Concrete Stresses are checked
Reinforcement Stresses are Checked
Crack Width is Checked

During ULS Design Checks:
M/Mu Ratio Checked

Shear Reinforcement and Confining Reinforcement
Confining reinforcements are provided to provided to ensure adequate ductility and
to
provide restraint against buckling to the compression reinforcement .
It is provided at critical end point upto a distance l
0,

Where l
0
is less than
larger lateral dimension of the member at the section where yielding occurs
1/6 of clear span of the member
450 mm.

At critical ends , if the shear reinforcement provided is more than the confining
reinforcement then confining reinforcements is already accounted in the shear itself.
Hence the larger value is taken into consideration.











120
As Per IRC -112 :2011 Requirements
1. it is not feasible to avoid localised hinge formation in the piles by designing pier to form
hinges earlier (capacity protection method), integrity and ductile behaviour of piles shall be
ensured as given below

2. The following locations along the piles should be treated as potential plastic hinges
(a) At the pile heads adjacent to the pile cap, when the rotation of the pile cap about a
horizontal axis transverse to the seismic action is restrained by the large stiffness of the pile
group.

(b) At location of maximum bending moment in piles taking into account soil pile interaction
using appropriate stiffness of both piles, pile cap and soil

(c) At the interface of soil layers with markedly different shear deformability (e.g. change of
strata)

3. At location of above type 2 (a), confining reinforcement of the amount, along a vertical
length equal of 3 times the pile diameter shall be provided

4. Unless a more accurate analysis is made longitudinal as well as confining reinforcement of
the same amount as that required at the pile head, shall be provided over a length of pile
diameters on each side of the point of maximum moment at location of type 2 (b) and each
side of the interface at location of type 2










121
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123
Pile driving methods (displacement piles)

Methods of pile driving can be
categorized as follows:
Dropping weight
Explosion
Vibration
Jacking (restricted to micro-pilling)
Jetting

124
PILE INSTALLATION METHODS
The installation process and method of installations are equally
important factors as of the design process of pile foundations.
In this section we will discuss the two main types of pile
installation methods;
installation by pile hammer and
boring by mechanical auger.
In order to avoid damages to the piles, during design,
installation Methods and installation equipment
should be carefully selected.
If installation is to be carried out using pile-hammer,
then the following factors should be taken in to
consideration:
the size and the weight of the pile
the driving resistance which has to be overcome to achieve the
design penetration
the available space and head room on the site
the availability of cranes and
the noise restrictions which may be in force in the locality
125
Drop hammers
A hammer with approximately the weight of
the pile is raised a suitable height in a guide
and released to strike the pile head. This is a
simple form of hammer used in conjunction
with light frames and test piling, where it may
be uneconomical to bring a steam boiler or
compressor on to a site to drive very limited
number of piles.
There are two main types of drop hammers:
Single-acting steam or compressed-air
hammers
Double-acting pile hammers
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128
Preparation of reinforcement
Lowering of reinforcement
Different steps of pile Execution
129
Different steps of pile Execution
Lowering of tremmy
Pouring of concrete
130
Pile load test
Preparation of pile cap
Different steps of pile Execution
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132
133
PILE DRIVING USING HAMMER
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137
138
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140
141
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