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DEEP FOUNDATIONS

by

Introduction to deep foundations

Classifications of deep foundations

Introduction to pile foundations

Uses of pile foundations

Classifications of pile foundations

Design of pile foundation.

Pile Spacing

Negative Skin Friction

Liquefaction of soil

Pile installation methods

Outline

2

Figure 1-1 End bearing piles Figure 1-2 Friction or cohesion pile

Introduction

It is a foundation unit that provides support for a

structure by the toe resistance (end resistance) in a

competent soil or rock at some depth below the

structure and/or by the shaft resistance (skin

resistance) in the soil or rock in which it is placed

3

Depth/Width >4

Low Bearing Capacity of soil .

Non availability of proper bearing stratum

at shallow depths.

Heavy loads from the super structure for

which shallow foundation may not be

economical or feasible

When We Use Deep Foundation

4

The types of deep foundations are

Pile

Well-foundation

Caissons or well foundations are heavier in

section and they are sunk to the required

depth.

Classification of Deep Foundations

5

A timber, steel or reinforced concrete post

usually vertical, used as a structural element

for transferring the loads at the required depth

in the deep foundations is called PILE

These are the long slender members either

driven or cast-in-situ and may be subjected to

vertical or lateral or vertical plus lateral loads

Pile Foundations

6

Piles may be used for the following purposes,

End Bearing or compressive strength: To

transfer the load through a soft soil to a suitable

bearing stratum by means of end bearing of the

piles.

Scour depth: To transfer the load through Water,

for any hydraulic structure because in this case,

we have to keep the foundation at the scour depth

below the bed level. For River Ravi Scour depth

is 30 to 35m below the bed. So if we go for the

shallow foundation, we will have to make an open

pit, coffer dam diversion of River etc. and it is

highly uneconomical

7

Use of Pile Foundation

Tension or Uplift: For a very tall structure (tower),

even if the Soil is very good, but here the

overturning is the problem. So either make the

base very large (Thick raft) or make deep

foundation.

Vibration Control: If a machine is generating high

vibrations, then to absorb the vibrations either

make a massive block or the next choice is deep

foundation, But Massive black is very expensive.

e.g. At Terbela the shaft of Turbine is 2m and when

it runs there area a lot of vibrations.

8

Use of Pile Foundation contd..

Anchor Piles: To provide Anchorage against

horizontal pull from sheet piling walls or other pulling

forces

Fender piles: To protect Water front structure

against impact from ships or other floating objects

Batter piles: To resist large horizontal or inclined

forces

Rapid Construction: Piles can also be used if the

time schedule has much importance

9

Use of Pile Foundation contd..

IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 1 : 2010 Driven cast in-situ concrete piles

IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 2 : 2010 Bored cast-in-situ piles

IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 3 : 2010 Driven precast concrete piles

IS 2911 : Part 1 : Sec 4 : 2010 Bored precast concrete piles

IS 2911 : Part 2 : 1980 Timber piles

IS 2911 : Part 3 : 1980 Under reamed piles

IS 2911 : Part 4 : 1985 Load test on piles

IS 5121 : 1969 Safety code for piling and other deep

foundations

IS 6426 : 1972 Specification for pile driving hammer

IS 6427 : 1972 Glossary of Terms Relating to Pile Driving

Equipment

IS 6428 : 1972 Specification for pile frame

IS 9716 : 1981 Guide for lateral dynamic load test on piles

10

Indian Standards on Piles

IS 6428 : 1972 Specification for pile frame

IS 9716 : 1981 Guide for lateral dynamic load test on piles

IS 14362 : 1996 Pile boring equipment - General requirements

IS 14593 : 1998 Bored cast-in-situ piles founded on rocks

Guidelines

IS 14893 : 2001 Non-Destructive Integrity Testing of Piles

(NDT) -Guidelines

11

Indian Standards on Piles contd..

Top layers of soil are highly compressible for

it to support

structural loads through shallow foundations

Rock level is shallow enough for end bearing

pile

foundations provide a more economical design

Lateral forces are relatively prominent.

In presence of expansive and collapsible

soils at the site.

Offshore structures

12

Need of Pile Foundation

Strong uplift forces on shallow foundations due to

shallow

water table can be partly transmitted to Piles

For structures near flowing water (Bridge abutments,

etc.)

to avoid the problems due to erosion

13

Need of Pile Foundation contd..

Classification of Piles

With respect to:

Mode of construction

Material of construction

Function of pile

Shape

Size

14

Classification based on

Construction Material

Timber piles: (Trunk of a Wooden tree, the

oldest pile)

Concrete pile

Steel pile

Composite pile: (Certain portion by one

material and certain portion by other

material)

15

Classification Based on Structural

Behavior

Some times skin friction is predominant

and sometimes the End bearing so

Friction Pile

If major part is taken by the shaft of pile. When very

Weak soils of large depths are available.

End Bearing Pile

When a soil layer of reasonable strength is available

at a reasonable depth.

Combination of Two. (Friction cum

bearing piles)

16

Classification Based on function of Pile

Compression pile: (To resist the comp. load)

Tension pile or Anchor pile

Compaction pile: (granular soil i.e. very loose sand

can be compacted by driving the piles at one place,

then are pulled out and driven at the next place, in

this way sand is densified)

Fender piles: (Used near sea-part to protect the

Harbour, just to absorb the impact of floating objects)

Batter piles: (Provided at an inclination their stability

is more against overturning)

Sheet piles.(To reduce seepage or to provide lateral

stability)

17

Classification Based on Shape

Round Piles

Square Piles

Octagonal Piles

I-Shaped Piles

Straight Piles

Tapered Piles

Bell-Bottom Piles

Screw Piles

18

Large Dia Pile: ( > 24)

Small Dia Pile: ( > 6 to 24)

Micro Dia Pile: (= 4 to 6)

(These are used for specific projects I.e. for Repair )

Root Pile(Rectangular) Used for special

projects i,e for under pressing, Repair)

If > 24 then These are called as pier

19

Classification Based on Size

Steel Piles

Pipe piles

Rolled steel H-section piles

Concrete Piles

Pre-cast Piles

Cast-in-situ Piles

Bored-in-situ piles

Timber Piles

Composite Piles

20

Types of Piles

Usual length: 15 m 60 m

Usual Load: 300 kN 1200 kN

Advantage:

Relatively less hassle during installation and easy to achieve

cutoff level

High driving force may be used for fast installation

Good to penetrate hard strata

Load carrying capacity is high

Disadvantage

Relatively expensive

Noise pollution during installation

Corrosion

Bend in piles while driving

21

Steel Pile :- Facts

Pre-cast Piles:

Usual length: 10 m 45 m

Usual Load: 7500 kN 8500 kN

Cast-in-situ Piles:

Usual length: 5 m 15 m

Usual Load: 200 kN 500 kN

Advantage:

Relatively cheap

It can be easily combined with concrete superstructure

Corrosion resistant

It can bear hard driving

Disadvantage:

Difficult to transport

Difficult to achieve desired cutoff

22

Concrete Pile :- Facts

In loose cohesionless soils

Densifies the soil upto a distance of 3.5 times the pile diameter

(3.5D) which increases the soils resistance to shearing

The friction angle varies from the pile surface to the limit of

compacted soil

In dense cohesionless soils

The dilatancy effect decreases the friction angle within the zone

of influence of displacement pile ( 3.5D approx )

Displacement piles are not effective in dense sands due to

above reason.

23

Displacement Piles

In cohesive soils

Soil is remolded near the displacement piles (2.0 D

approx.) leading

to a decreased value of shearing resistance.

Pore-pressure is generated during installation

causing lower

effective stress and consequently lower shearing

resistance.

Excess pore-pressure dissipates over the time and

soil regains its strength.

Example: Driven concrete piles, Timber or Steel

piles

24

Displacement Piles contd..

Due to no displacement during installation, there is no heave in

the ground.

Cast in-situ piles may be cased or uncased (by removing

casing as concreting progresses).

They may be provided withreinforcement if economical with

their reduced diameter.

Enlarged bottom ends (three times pile diameter) may be

provided in cohesive soils leading to much larger point bearing

capacity.

25

Non-Displacement Piles

Soil on the sides may soften due to contact

with wet concrete

or during boring itself. This may lead to loss

of its shear

strength.

Concreting under water may be challenging

and may resulting in wasting or necking of

concrete in squeezing ground.

Example: Bored cast in-situ or pre-cast

piles

26

Non-Displacement Piles contd..

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

NECESSARY INFORMATION

Site investigation data as laid down under IS 1892 up to a

depth not less than 10m beyond the pile founding level.

Geotechnical interpretation report based on geotechnical

report clearly indicating soil strata suceptible to liquefaction

during earthquake.

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

Rock socketed piles can be designed to carry

compressive loads in side wall shear only or end bearing

only, or a combination of both. The most important factors

that influence the design procedure are the strength,

degree of fracturing and modulus of deformation of rock

mass, the condition of the walls and base of the socket

and the geometry of the socket.

Depending upon the type of rock, any one of the following

methods shall be used for computing compression

capacity:

a) Based on uniaxial compressive strength of rock,

b) Based on limit pressure of rock,

c) Based on shear strength of rock, and

4) Structural strength of pile.

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

Liquefaction of Soils

History

Introduced by Arthur Casagrande (1935-38)

Serious attention because of Japan, Alaska and

Nigata earthquake in 1964.

Evidence of liquefaction found in prior earthquakes

Recent Bhuj earthquake on 26 January 2001 in India

73

Occurs in saturate sands,

commonly near rivers,

lakes, bays, and oceans

Foundation failures,

structures damages

Kobe, Japan, 1995

74

Where and How

Why liquefaction

Rising pore water pressure reduced

effective stress reduced shear strength

In extreme case effective stress turns

zero loses shear strength soil acts

like fluid

75

Factors Affecting Liquefaction

GRAIN SIZE.

INITIAL RELATIVE DENSITY.

VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS.

INFLUENCE OF EFFECTIVE STRESS.

PERIOD OF LOADING.

PREVIOUS STRAIN HISTORY.

DRAINAGE AND DEPOSIT.

TRAPPED AIR.

76

Consequence of Liquefaction

Settlements

Lateral spreads

Lateral flows

Loss of lateral support

Loss of bearing support

Flotation of bearing supports

77

78

FAILURE OF RETAINING WALL:

RETAINING WALL TOPPLES AS THE THE

PRESSURE IN THE BACKFILL IS

INCREASED DUE TO LIQUEFACTION.

COLLAPSE OF BRIDGE:

DISPLACEMENT OF THE COLUMN DUE TO

LATERAL SPREADING AS A RESULT OF

LIQUEFACTION DEMOLISHES THE

STRUCTURE.

79

RETAINING WALL COLLAPSE IN KOBE, JAPAN

80

COLLAPSE OF BRIDGE IN KOBE, JAPAN

81

COLLAPSE OF SUPERSTRUCTURE OF SHOWA BRIDGE, NIIGATA

EARTHQUAQKE

82

TILTING OF BUILDINGS IN NIIGATA, JAPAN IN 1964

83

FISSURE IN THE SOCCER FIELD, CAUCETE EARTHQUAKE 1977

Factors Affecting Liquefaction

Soil type

Grain Size and Its Distribution

Initial Relative Density

Vibration Characteristics

Location of Drainage and Dimension of Deposit

Surcharge Load

Method of Soil Formation

Period Under Sustained Load

Previous Strain History

Trapped Air

84

85

PREVIOUS STRAIN HISTORY: IF A SOIL HAS

PREVIOUSLY BEEN SUBJECTED TO STRESS, THE CHANCES OF

LIQUEFACTION ARE INCREASED.

TRAPPED AIR: EXCESS PORE PRESSURE DISSIPATE IN AIR

TRAPPED SOIL VOIDS, HENCE REDUCING LIQUEFACTION.

HAZARDS DUE TO LIQUEFACTION

LARGE AND DIFFERENTIAL

SETTLEMENT.

TILTING OF STRUCTURES.

RUPTURE OF STRUCTURES.

CRACKS IN HIGHWAYS.

86

87

GRAIN SIZE : FINE AND UNIFORM SANDS ARE MORE PRONE TO

LIQUEFACTION THAN COARSE GRAINED ONES.

INITIAL RELATIVE DENSITY: AS INITIAL DENSITY

INCREASES, CHANCES OF LIQUEFACTION ARE REDUCED.

VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS: MORE THE

VIBRATION OCCURS MORE WILL BE THE LIQUEFACTION.

88

DRAINAGE AND DEPOSITS: IF THE DRAINAGE

FACILITY PROVIDED FOR THE SOIL IS MORE, THE CHANCES OF

LIQUEFACTION IS LESS.

INFLUENCE OF EFFECTIVE STRESS: HIGHER

THE INITIAL CONFINING PRESSURE, LOWER WILL BE THE

LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL.

PERIOD OF LOADING: SAND DEPOSITS,

UNDISTURBED FOR LONGER DURATION ARE RESISTANT TO

LIQUEFACTION.

A phenomenon when the

static equilibrium is destroyed

by static or dynamic loads

with low residual strength

Residual strength is the

strength of a liquefied soil

Earthquakes, blasting, and

pile driving are all example of

dynamic loads that could

trigger flow liquefaction

89

Failures mode of flow liquefaction

Large and rapid

movements

Disastrous effects,

like a remarkable

bearing capacity

failure.

Kawagishi-cho apartment

in Niigata earthquake 1964

90

A liquefaction phenomenon

Triggered by cyclic loading

Occurring with static shear

stresses lower than soil

strength

Deformations due to cyclic

mobility develop incrementally

Lateral spreading is a common

result of cyclic mobility

1976 Guatemala earthquake

caused lateral spreading

91

Types of Failure

Cyclic Mobility

Overturning

Sand Boiling

92

Evaluation of liquefaction potential

Factor of Safety against liquefaction

FS = CRR / CSR

SEED and IDRISS (1971)

CSR= av/vo = 0.65(MWF) (amax/g) (vo / vo)*rd

Where:

av = average cyclic shear stress

MWF = Magnitude Weighting Factor = (M)2.56 /173

M = earthquake magnitude, commonly M= 7.5

amax = maximum horizontal acceleration at ground surface

g = acceleration due gravity = 9.81m/s2

vo = total vertical overburden stress

vo = effective vertical overburden stress

z = depth in meters (for z>25m)

rd = stress reduction factor, typically (1-0.015z)

93

Cyclic Resistance Ratio

CRR can be evaluated by Laboratory and field tests such as:

Cyclic Triaxial test

Hollow cylindrical torsion test

cyclic simple shear test

Standard penetration test

Cone penetration test (CPT)

Piezo Vibrocone test

Siesmic cone penetration test(SCPT)

But most commonly SPT and CPT test are conducted, as they

are popular.

94

SPT liquefaction assessment chart :

Correction for effective overburden stress (CN)

Correction for hammer energy ratio (CE)

Correction for bore hole diameter (CB)

Correction for samplers (CS)

Correction for rod length (CR)

(N1)60 = Nm CN CE CB CR CS

SPT based liquefaction assessment chart (modified from Seed et al.1985)

95

CPT liquefaction assessment chart :

The CPT is more consistent and repeatable

Continuous penetration records are available

Liquefaction assessment chart is based on normalized tip resistance

CPT- based liquefaction assessment chart (modified from Robertson PK and wride CE in 1998)

q

96

Remedial Measures

Compaction

Drainage

Grouting

Deep

Foundation

97

Conclusions

Because liquefaction only occurs in saturated soil, its effects are

most commonly observed in low-lying areas near bodies of water

such as rivers, lakes, bays, and oceans.

Cyclic shear stress to initiate liquefaction was higher than the cyclic

shear stress induced by the earthquake.

Sands were considered to be the only type of soil susceptible to

liquefaction, but liquefaction was also observed in gravel and silt.

Soil of medium to fine texture that is clay, silty clay, loam, and

gravelly soils with well to moderate drainage has no liquefaction

vulnerability.

98

Contd.

The SPT- and the CPT-based liquefaction assessment charts are

the preferred means of evaluating liquefaction potential .

They are the most reliable because they are supported by the

largest databases on the occurrence of liquefaction .

The SPT test provides soil samples for identification of soil type

and many empirical design procedures are based on the SPT, N.

The CPT provides the best picture of soil stratification and is the

most reliable penetration test. Many design procedures are also

based on CPT data .

If the CPT is run with a seismic cone, the shear wave velocities

can be measured at the same time. The shear moduli can be

readily obtained from the velocity data and can be used as input

into dynamic and static analyses.

99

100

Loads Applied on Pile

Combinations of vertical, horizontal and moment

loading may be applied at the soil surface from the

overlying structure

For the majority of foundations the loads applied to the

piles are primarily vertical

For piles in jetties, foundations for bridge piers, tall

chimneys, and offshore piled foundations the lateral

resistance is an important consideration

The analysis of piles subjected to lateral and moment

loading is more complex than simple vertical loading

because of the soil-structure interaction.

Pile installation will always cause change of adjacent

soil properties, sometimes good, sometimes bad.

101

Design of Pile Foundation

Basic checks for pile forces

1. Which pile will have the

highest axial load?

2. Which pile will have the

lowest axial load?

3. Which pile will be subject to

the highest horizontal load?

4. Which pile will be subject to

the highest bending

moments?

X

Y

Z

M

x

M

y

F

x

F

z

F

y

1 2

3

4

3D c-c

Pile force Calculation

By rivet theory

force on a pile =

2 2

r

r M

r

r M

N

P

P

i y

i x

pile

103

Basic steps for pile design

Calculate axial force and moment

Check for service load within safe

capacity of pile ( Geotechnical)

Check for crack width

Check for ULS design ( Structural

Capacity)

Check for permissible stress in concrete

and reinforcement

Minimum r/f shall be 0.4% (IS:2911)

Clear cover 75 mm

104

Design of Pile Cap

Design by Strut and tie model method

(up to 4 piles)

More flexural reinforcement as compared to

beam theory

No shear reinforcement

Reinforcement to be provided in bands over

pile heads

Nominal reinforcement in other area (80%-

20% as per IRC)

Appendix A of American Concrete Institute

Building Code, ACI 318-2005

105

Design of Pile Cap

Design by Flexural Theory ( 5 or more

piles)

Designed as a beam

Minimum/Design shear reinforcement

shall be provided

Uniform distribution of main reinforcement

106

Pile Design Methodology

Forces are Worked out at the Bottom of Pier/Column & Concomitant

Forces are taken

Example

These Forces are Used as input for the calculation of Pile Load using

Rivet Analogy / Soil Structure Interaction

STAAD model is prepared for the Soil Structure interaction, using Soil

springs corresponding to Soil Parameters in Geotechnical Investigation

Report.

Horizontal Load is applied at the CG of Pile Cap, Moment Factor is

worked out for static Spring values and Dynamic Spring Values

Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz Load Case

Min Fx -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 312.00

Max Fx -757.91 13948.97 -1207.62 -2794.01 37.97 1759.79 203.00

Min Fy -757.91 13948.97 -1207.62 -2794.01 37.97 1759.79 203.00

Max Fy -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 313.00

Min Fz -764.89 14043.79 -1211.04 -2797.39 35.89 1796.10 313.00

Max Fz -761.53 14946.20 -1188.33 -2657.36 41.94 1777.19 202.00

Min Mx -764.89 14043.79 -1211.04 -2797.39 35.89 1796.10 313.00

Max Mx -761.53 14946.20 -1188.33 -2657.36 41.94 1777.19 202.00

Min My -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 311.00

Max My -761.53 14946.20 -1188.33 -2657.36 41.94 1777.19 202.00

Min Mz -757.91 13948.97 -1207.62 -2794.01 37.97 1759.79 203.00

Max Mz -840.00 15244.31 -1208.27 -2740.62 32.43 2172.81 312.00

107

Pile Design Methodology

These moment coefficents are multiplied with the Horizontal shear

force to find the moment at the pile top

These Forces (Vertical and Moment) are used as input for SLS design

checks - calculation of Concrete stresses in Pile and Stresses in

Reinforcement, crack width

For ULS case Ultimate moment capacity is worked out and interaction

ratio (M/Mu) is checked

Ultimate Shear Stresses are Checked according to IRS-CBC 1997

Ultimate Shear stress in concrete is calculated as per percentage area of

tension reinforcement and grade of concrete

Enhanced shear strength shall be calculated using Shear enhancement

factor, depth factor.

108

Example for Design of 6 Pile Group System

Pile Layout

Pile -3

0.75 3.5 3.5

.75

.75

3.5

.75

109

Number of piles (N) `= 6

SIZE OF PILE CAP = 8.5 X 4.5 m

DEPTH OF PILE CAP = 1.5 m

WT. OF PILE CAP = 146 T

DEPTH OF EARTH FILL = 0.50 m

DENSITY OF SOIL = 2 t/m

3

WT. OF SOIL = 36 T

Factor for the moment using

STAAD (Static)

= 2.8 T-m/t

Factor for the moment using

STAAD (Dynamic)

= 2.2 T-m/t

110

Pile Modeling

The pile foundation has two parts pile and pile cap. The model was

idealized as per the exact dimensions. The piles are modelled to exact

diameter and pile cap with their thickness. To account for the rigidity of

the pile cap, rigid members were used to connect the top of pile cap to

piles.

The pile cap was idealized as a plate of thickness. The pile cap was

meshed for finite element analysis of the cap and equitable distribution

of the load.

To simulate the soil conditions, the stiffness was applied as springs of

equivalent stiffness.

For Seismic case, stiffness constraints are not provided for a depth upto

liqufiable starta. This is to account for the liquefaction behavior of the

soil as the effective shear reduces close to zero.

3D Model of 6 Pile Group

111

The stiffness values are determined from the SPT values from geotechnical

Parameters in the lab test results reported in Geotechnical Report.

The stiffness calculations are performed from the IS 2911 Part I Section 2.

Stiffness of soil is calculated using , K= z*dl*h

Z : Depth

Dl : Lateral Deflection

h : Determined from Table 3 based on SPT Values

Table 3 of IS 2911 Part 1 Section 2

For seismic cases,

K (Dynamic) = 3.5 x K (Static)

112

Model Analysis

Model are analyzed to study the behavior of the pile subjected to lateral laods. To aim

of the analysis is to arrive at bending moment coefficients. That is bending moment

of the pile , when subjected to unit shear force. This coefficient can be used in further

analysis by multiplying with shear forces acting on pile top.

The unit shear forces were realized as Unit force in X and Z direction acting on pile

top

Unit force mutiply by number of piles in the pile group shall be applied on the centre

of gravity of pile cap

Pile Analysis with Stiffness Property

113

BM Diagram 6 Pile Static

BM Diagram 6 Pile Dynamic

114

Calculation of Pile Load

The maximum load on the foundation is to be identified. The load on the pile is

distributed as per the rivet analogy and loading on individual pile load are

determined. The water table is taken at ground level. Hence the weights of the

material taken are submerged weights.

Pu=P+Pp+Ps

Pu : Total load on the piles

P : Total load on the structure (At the Pier Bottom)

Pp : Weight of the Pile cap

Ps : Weight due to the soil

Force Distribution in Pile

115

S.No. rL rT rL

2

rT

2

(m) (m) (m

2

) (m

2

)

1 -3.5 1.75 12.25 3.06

2 0 1.75 0.00 3.06

3 3.5 1.75 12.25 3.06

4 -3.5 -1.75 12.25 3.06

5 0 -1.75 0.0 3.1

6 3.5 -1.75 12.3 3.1

= 49.0 18.4

Pile Load = V/n + M

L

.r

L

/r

L

2

+ M

T

.r

T

/ r

T

2

No. of piles = 6

116

Pile Design

The load on individual pile was determined for, SLS Normal, SLS Seismic load , ULS

Normal, ULS Seismic combination.

For normal case, SLS Normal and ULS Normal load combinations are determined. The

load combinations are forces and moments were maximum and minimum in all three

directions were identified for further analysis as limiting cases.

The bending moment coefficients for static and dynamic cases from the model are

employed to determine the moment at the top of the pile due to various loads.

TRANS. -TX LONG. -TZ

312.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06

203.00 1421.91 -77.26 -123.10 -469.46 63.50 307 273 240 295 261 228 145.34 24.2 53.50

203.00 1421.91 -77.26 -123.10 -469.46 63.50 307 273 240 295 261 228 145.34 24.2 53.50

313.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06

313.00 1431.58 -77.97 -123.45 -470.33 66.13 309 275 242 296 263 229 146.01 24.3 53.74

202.00 1523.57 -77.63 -121.13 -452.58 64.72 323 290 258 310 278 246 143.87 24.0 52.93

313.00 1431.58 -77.97 -123.45 -470.33 66.13 309 275 242 296 263 229 146.01 24.3 53.74

202.00 1523.57 -77.63 -121.13 -452.58 64.72 323 290 258 310 278 246 143.87 24.0 52.93

311.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06

202.00 1523.57 -77.63 -121.13 -452.58 64.72 323 290 258 310 278 246 143.87 24.0 52.93

203.00 1421.91 -77.26 -123.10 -469.46 63.50 307 273 240 295 261 228 145.34 24.2 53.50

312.00 1553.96 -85.63 -123.17 -464.12 93.05 331 298 265 314 280 247 150.01 25.0 55.06

P6

(t)

RESULTANT

SHEAR (t)

SHEAR

FORCE PER

PILE (t)

VERTICAL

LOAD- N

(t)

HORIZONATL FORCE AT

BASE OF PIER (t)

LONG.

MOMENT-Mx

(t-m)

TRANSVERSE

MOEMNT-M

Z

(t-m)

P5

(t)

LOAD

COMBINATIONS

(FROM STAAD)

AT NODE 1 IN ST1 MODEL

P1

(t)

P2

(t)

SLS LOAD

COMBINATIONS

MAX. MOMENT

AT TOP OF

PILE (t-m)

P3

(t)

P4

(t)

117

MAX. MIN.

NORMAL SLS 331 228

SEISMIC SLS 386 85

25

46

LOAD CASE

VERTIAL LOAD (t)

HORIZONTAL FORCE PER

PILE (t)

MAX.

TRANS. -TX LONG. -TZ

1306.80 -220.09 -158.31 -694.88 -907.38 211 162 112 384 335 285 271.12 45.2 70.99

1315.20 96.82 -58.39 -125.28 1003.92 354 345 336 163 154 145 113.06 18.8 29.32

1081.03 -106.77 -237.94 -1203.70 -304.03 268 182 96 325 239 153 260.80 43.5 72.51

1580.62 9.48 -179.71 -777.12 -199.23 330 275 219 368 313 257 179.96 30.0 50.97

1184.08 -118.44 -248.06 -1243.29 -289.50 289 200 111 344 255 166 274.88 45.8 76.27

1379.16 -1.32 31.13 419.64 373.74 266 296 326 195 225 255 31.16 5.2 8.83

1184.08 -118.44 -248.06 -1243.29 -289.50 289 200 111 344 255 166 274.88 45.8 76.27

1379.16 -1.32 31.13 419.64 373.74 266 296 326 195 225 255 31.16 5.2 8.83

1521.10 -125.98 -97.27 -322.59 215.85 327 304 281 286 263 240 159.17 26.5 41.85

1564.77 16.14 -178.20 -767.23 -222.62 325 270 215 367 312 258 178.93 29.8 50.65

1145.00 -204.91 -148.42 -658.78 -934.21 179 132 85 357 310 263 253.02 42.2 66.28

1477.00 81.64 -68.28 -161.38 1030.75 386 375 363 190 178 167 106.43 17.7 28.12

P3

(t)

P4

(t)

P6

(t)

RESULTANT

SHEAR (t)

SHEAR

FORCE PER

PILE (t)

VERTICAL

LOAD- N

(t)

HORIZONATL FORCE AT

BASE OF PIER (t)

LONG.

MOMENT-Mx

(t-m)

TRANSVERSE

MOEMNT-M

Z

(t-m)

P5

(t)

LOAD COMBINATIONS

(FROM ST1)

seismic

P1

(t)

P2

(t)

SLS LOAD

COMBINATIONS

MAX. MOMENT

AT TOP OF

PILE (t-m)

118

Reinforcement Design

The reinforcement and detailing were analyzed using Oasys Adsec software. The

software takes the properties, materials used, reinforcement bars arrangement,

loads and moments at a given section The software gives the crack analysis, stress

and M/Mu ratio as outputs.

Cross Section of Pile with Reinforcement

Main Reinforcements

The moment and loads are given as input to the software.

Concrete Grade

Reinforcement Grade

Clear Cover

Dimension detail of Pile (Pile Diameter)

Reinforcement Nos. and Area along with distribution pattern

119

Output is taken for SLS load combinations and ULS Load Combinations

During SLS Design checks:

Concrete Stresses are checked

Reinforcement Stresses are Checked

Crack Width is Checked

During ULS Design Checks:

M/Mu Ratio Checked

Shear Reinforcement and Confining Reinforcement

Confining reinforcements are provided to provided to ensure adequate ductility and

to

provide restraint against buckling to the compression reinforcement .

It is provided at critical end point upto a distance l

0,

Where l

0

is less than

larger lateral dimension of the member at the section where yielding occurs

1/6 of clear span of the member

450 mm.

At critical ends , if the shear reinforcement provided is more than the confining

reinforcement then confining reinforcements is already accounted in the shear itself.

Hence the larger value is taken into consideration.

120

As Per IRC -112 :2011 Requirements

1. it is not feasible to avoid localised hinge formation in the piles by designing pier to form

hinges earlier (capacity protection method), integrity and ductile behaviour of piles shall be

ensured as given below

2. The following locations along the piles should be treated as potential plastic hinges

(a) At the pile heads adjacent to the pile cap, when the rotation of the pile cap about a

horizontal axis transverse to the seismic action is restrained by the large stiffness of the pile

group.

(b) At location of maximum bending moment in piles taking into account soil pile interaction

using appropriate stiffness of both piles, pile cap and soil

(c) At the interface of soil layers with markedly different shear deformability (e.g. change of

strata)

3. At location of above type 2 (a), confining reinforcement of the amount, along a vertical

length equal of 3 times the pile diameter shall be provided

4. Unless a more accurate analysis is made longitudinal as well as confining reinforcement of

the same amount as that required at the pile head, shall be provided over a length of pile

diameters on each side of the point of maximum moment at location of type 2 (b) and each

side of the interface at location of type 2

121

122

123

Pile driving methods (displacement piles)

Methods of pile driving can be

categorized as follows:

Dropping weight

Explosion

Vibration

Jacking (restricted to micro-pilling)

Jetting

124

PILE INSTALLATION METHODS

The installation process and method of installations are equally

important factors as of the design process of pile foundations.

In this section we will discuss the two main types of pile

installation methods;

installation by pile hammer and

boring by mechanical auger.

In order to avoid damages to the piles, during design,

installation Methods and installation equipment

should be carefully selected.

If installation is to be carried out using pile-hammer,

then the following factors should be taken in to

consideration:

the size and the weight of the pile

the driving resistance which has to be overcome to achieve the

design penetration

the available space and head room on the site

the availability of cranes and

the noise restrictions which may be in force in the locality

125

Drop hammers

A hammer with approximately the weight of

the pile is raised a suitable height in a guide

and released to strike the pile head. This is a

simple form of hammer used in conjunction

with light frames and test piling, where it may

be uneconomical to bring a steam boiler or

compressor on to a site to drive very limited

number of piles.

There are two main types of drop hammers:

Single-acting steam or compressed-air

hammers

Double-acting pile hammers

126

127

128

Preparation of reinforcement

Lowering of reinforcement

Different steps of pile Execution

129

Different steps of pile Execution

Lowering of tremmy

Pouring of concrete

130

Pile load test

Preparation of pile cap

Different steps of pile Execution

131

132

133

PILE DRIVING USING HAMMER

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

THANK YOU

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