Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

Assessing Facilities for Safety and

Health
Mechanical
Mechanical Hazards
Mechanical hazards are those associated with
power-driven machines, whether automated
or manually operated or it is a type of general
confined space hazard that exists when
electrical or mechanical equipment may be
accidentally activated.
Where do Mechanical Hazards Occur
Three Basic Areas:
Point of Operation cutting, shaping, boring
or forming of stock
Power Transmission Apparatus flywheels,
pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings
Other Moving Parts auxiliary parts of
machine


Boring machine
Cutting machine
Shaping machine
Flywheel
Connecting rod
Coupling
Common Mechanical Injuries
Cutting and Tearing
Shearing
Crushing
Breaking
Straining and Spraining
Puncturing

Common Mechanical Injuries
Cutting and Tearing - A cut
occurs when a body part
comes in contact with a
sharp edge. Examples of
mechanisms involving
cutting hazards include
bandsaws, circular saws,
boring or drilling
machines, turning
machines (lathes), or
milling machines.
www.sensorcentral.com
Common Mechanical Injuries
Shearing - Examples
of machines used for
shearing operations
are mechanically,
hydraulically, or
pneumatically
powered shears.

www.sensorcentral.com
Common Mechanical Injuries
Crushing - They occur when a part of the
body is caught between two hard surfaces
that progressively move together, thereby
crushing anything between them
Categories:
1. Squeeze-point - exist where two hard surfaces, at least one
of which must be in motion, push close enough together to
crush any object that may be between them.
2. Run-in point - exist where two objects, at least one of which
is rotating, come progressively close together
Common Mechanical Injuries
www.markmallet.com
Common Mechanical Injuries
Breaking - A break in a bone is known as
fracture. Fractures are classified as simple,
compound, complete, and incomplete.

Common Mechanical Injuries
Straining and Spraining - A strain results when
muscles are overstretched or torn. A sprain is
the result of torn ligaments in a joint. Strains
and sprains can cause swelling and intense
pain.

Common Mechanical Injuries
Puncturing - results
when power is applied
to a slide (ram) for the
purpose of blanking,
drawing, or stamping
metal or other
materials. Typical
machines used for
punching operations
are power presses and
iron workers.
www.sensorcentral.com
Hazardous Mechanical Motions
Basic Types:
Rotating
Reciprocating
Transversing

Hazardous Mechanical Motions
Rotating - Collars, couplings, cams, clutches,
flywheels, shaft ends, spindles, meshing gears,
and horizontal or vertical shafting are some
examples of common rotating mechanisms
which may be hazardous.
Hazardous Mechanical Motions
www.grainger.com
Hazardous Mechanical Motions
www.sensorcentral.com
Hazardous Mechanical Motions
Reciprocating - hazardous because, during the
back-and-forth or up-and-down motion, a worker
may be struck by or caught between a moving and a
stationary part.

ehs.uky.edu
Hazardous Mechanical Motions
Transversing - (movement in a straight, continuous
line) creates a hazard because a worker may be
struck or caught in a pinch or shear point by the
moving part.
www.grainger.com
Safeguarding Defined
The National Safety Council defines safeguarding as follows:
machine safeguarding is to minimize the risk of accidents of
machine-operator contact. The contact can be:
An individual making the contact with the machine usually
the moving part because of inattention caused by fatigue,
distraction, curiosity, or deliberate chance taking;
From the machine via flying metal chips, chemical and hot
metal splashes, and circular saw kickback, to name a few;
Caused by the direct result of a machine malfunction,
including mechanical and electrical failure.
Requirements for all Safeguards
Prevent contact
Secure
Protect from falling objects
Create no new hazards
Create no interference
Allow safe lubrication

Methods of Machine Safeguarding
General Classifications:
Guards
Devices
Feeding and Ejection Systems
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Guards
Fixed Guards - a permanent barrier
between workers and the point of
operation.

www.miningsafety.com
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Guards
Interlocked Guards shut down the machine
when the guard is not securely in place or is
disengaged.
ww.ilo.org/safework_
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Guards
Adjustable Guards provide a barrier against a
variety of different hazards associated with
different production operations.
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
Presence Sensing
Pullback
Restraint
Safety Trip Controls
Two Hand Control
Gate

Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
Presence Sensing
1. The photoelectric (optical) presence-sensing
device uses a system of light sources and
controls which can interrupt the machine's
operating cycle.
2. The radiofrequency (capacitance) presence-
sending device uses a radio beam that is part of
the machine control circuit.
3. The electromechanical sensing device has a
probe or contact bar which descends to a
predetermined distance when the operator
initiates the machine cycle.
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
Pullback - devices utilize
a series of cables
attached to the
operator's hands,
wrists, and/or arms.
http://www.nmsu.edu/safety/
programs/industrial_safety/
MachineSafeGuarding/
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
Restraint - The restraint
(holdout) device cables
or straps that are
attached to the
operator's hands at a
fixed point. The cables
or straps must be
adjusted to let the
operator's hands travel
within a predetermined
safe area.

http://www.osha.gov
/Publications/OSHA317
0/osha3170.html
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
Safety Trip Controls -
a quick means for
deactivating the
machine in an
emergency
situation. A
pressure-sensitive
body bar, when
depressed, will
deactivate the
machine.

http://ehs.uky.edu/ohs/
machineguard/

Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
Two Hand Control -
requires constant,
concurrent pressure
by the operator to
activate the
machine.

http://www.thefabricator.com/articl
e/safety/safeguarding-against-
robotic-welding-hazards
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
Gate - movable barrier that protects the
operator at the point of operation before
the machine cycle can be started. Gates
are, in many instances, designed to be
operated with each machine cycle.

Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Devices
http://www.machinesafety.co.uk/me
sh-machine-guards/
Methods of Machine Safeguarding
Feeding and Ejections Systems
Types:
Automatic Feed
Semiautomatic feed
Automatic Ejection
Semiautomatic Ejection
Automatic feed
Robot Safeguarding
The main hazards associated with robots are:
(1) entrapment of a worker between a robot
and a solid surface;
(2) impact with a moving robot arm; and
(3) impact with objects ejected or dropped by
the robot.

Robot Safeguarding
The best guard against these hazards is to
erect a physical barrier around the entire
perimeter of a robots work envelope (the
three-dimensional area established by the
robots full range of motion). This physical
barrier should be able to withstand the
force of the heaviest object the robot could
eject.
Lockout/Tagout Systems
Lockout system


Tagout system