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4G stands for 4th generation & faster and reliable.

The goal is the same: long-range, high-speed wireless,


which for the purposes of this report will be called 4G.

4G, which is also known as beyond 3G or fourth-
generation cell phone technology, refers to the entirely
new evolution and a complete 3G replacement in wireless
communications.

Such a system does not yet exist, nor will it exist in todays
market without standardization.

1G TECHNOLOGY
Analog continuous in amplitude & time.
Variations in the signal disrupts over long distances

2G TECHNOLOGY
Introduced in 1990s, switched to a digital format and
introduced text messaging & Emailing.

3G TECHNOLOGY
Improved the efficiency of how data is carried, High
speed e-mail and internet access.

3G technology is very EXPENSIVE.
LESS BANDWIDTH is available for data service.
Data transmission rate is very SLOW.

Unfortunately, the current network does not have the
available bandwidth necessary to handle data services well.
Not only is data transfer slow at the speed of analog
modems but the bandwidth that is available is not allocated
efficiently for data.
Data transfer tends to come in bursts rather than in the
constant stream of voice data.







4G protocols use spectrum up to 3 times as efficiently
as 3G systems, have better ways of handling dynamic
load changes , and create more bandwidth than 3G
systems. This will allow simple and transparent
connectivity.

Unlike previous generations of mobile technology,
4G mobile will be widely used for internet
access on computers as well as carrying cell phone
communications.



SPEED 20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode.

FREQUENCY BAND Higher frequency bands
(2-8 GHz) .

BANDWIDTH 100 MHz (or more)

NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
Hybrid: Integration of wireless LAN
(WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area

FDMA One frequency for the entire duration of
the call.

TDMA -Each phone call is allocated a spot in the
frequency for a small amount of time, and "takes
turns" being transmitted.

CDMA -Each phone call is uniquely encoded and
transmitted across the entire spectrum, in a manner
known as spread spectrum transmission.




TDMA, or Time Division Multiple Access, is a
technique in which for a particular time slot, one
device is allowed to utilize the entire bandwidth of
the spectrum, and every other device is in the
quiescent state.




Time Division Multiple Access
This makes the frame setup simpler and more
efficient because there is no time wasted on
setting up the order of transmission.

This has the negative side effect of wasting
bandwidth and capacity on devices that have
nothing to send.
CDMA, or Code Division Multiple Access,
allows every device in a cell to transmit over
the entire bandwidth at all time.
ULTRA WIDE BAND NETWORKS

UWB, is an advanced transmission technology that can be
used in the implementation of a 4G network. The secret to
UWB is that it is typically detected as noise.

Ultra Wideband uses a frequency of between 3.1GHz to 10.6
GHz.

UWB provides greater bandwidth as much as 60 megabits
per second, which is 6 times faster than todays wireless
networks. It also uses significantly less power, since it
transmits pulses instead of a continuous signal.

UWB uses all frequencies from high to low, thereby
passing through objects like the sea or layers of rock.







SWITCHED BEAM ANTENNAS have fixed
beams of transmission, and can switch from one
predefined beam to another when the user with
the phone moves throughout the sector.



ADAPTIVE ARRAY ANTENNAS represent the most
advanced smart antenna which uses a variety of new
signal processing algorithms to locate and track the
user, minimize interference, and maximize intended
signal reception
Optimize available power
Increase base station range and coverage
Reuse available spectrum
Increase bandwidth
Lengthen battery life of wireless devices

UWB and smart antenna technology play a large
role in a 4G system, advanced software will be
needed to process data on both the sending and
receiving side. One solution to this multi-network
functional device is a software defined radio.

A SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO would be able to
work on different broadband networks and would
be able to transfer to another network while
traveling outside of the users home network






In 4G technology, packet switching method is mainly
used in which data is divided into packet and then
transmitted.


ADVANTAGES
More Secure
More Flexible
More Reliable
Proven Technology
Easier to Standardize
Extensible



More affordable communication services.

TV, internet, phone, radio, home
environment sensors all reachable through
one device the cell phone

Increase in social networking, invasion of
privacy, security concerns.

Cheaper than previous generations.

Consumers demand that software and hardware be
user-friendly and perform well.

Customers want the features delivered to them,
simple and straightforward.
The best way to help all parties is to enforce 4G as the
next wireless standard. The software that consumers
desire is already in wide use.
Todays wired society is going wireless,
and it
has a problem. 4G is the answer.