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Cellular Networks

1G
(<1Kbps)
1 Kbps
10 Kbps
100 Kbps
2 Mbps
1 Mbps
Data Rates
1980
1990 2000
2010
2G
(9.6Kbps)
2.5G
(10-150Kbps)
3G
(144Kbps to 2Mbps)
Years
Overview
Cellular networks: From 1G to 3G
1G: First generation wireless cellular: Early 1980s
Analog transmission, primarily speech: AMPS (Advanced Mobile
Phone Systems) and others
2G: Second generation wireless cellular: Late 1980s
Digital transmission
Primarily speech and low bit-rate data (9.6 Kbps)
High-tier: GSM, IS-95 (CDMA), etc
Low-tier (PCS): Low-cost, low-power, low-mobility e.g. PACS
2.5G: 2G evolved to medium rate (< 100kbps) data
3G: future Broadband multimedia
144 kbps - 384 kbps for high-mobility, high coverage
2 Mbps for low-mobility and low coverage
Beyond 3G: research in 4G
Frequency allocation
Licensed
Many providers
Multiple Access
Many users
Wide area of coverage
Traffic management
Location management
High mobility (in cars, trains)
Multiple suppliers
Handoff management, roaming
General principles
Handled differently by different generations
Issues Vital to cellular
Multiple Access Techniques: How to allocate users
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Session1
Session2
Session3
Session4
Frequency Division
Multiple Access (FDMA)
1G Cellular (AMPS)
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Time Division
Multiple Access (TDMA)
2G TDMA
3G TDMA
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Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA)
All sessions
based on a
code
2G CDMA (IS-95)
3G CDMA
A Cellular Network
Public
Switched
Telephone
Network
(PSTN)
Mobile
Telephone
Switching
Center
(MTSC)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Mobile User
Cell 1
Cell 2
Cordless connection
Wired connection
HLR VLR
HLR = Home Location Register

VLR = Visitor Location Register
Overview of Location Services
Cell-id based location.
assigned an id of the cell that you are in.
cell-id is stored in a database.
As you move from one cell to another, you are assigned a
different cell-id and the location database is updated.
most commonly used in cellular networks. (HLR, VLR)
Neighborhood polling: Connected mobile units only move to
adjacent cells
Angle of arrival (AOA). the angle at which radio waves from your
device "attack" an antenna is used to calculate the location of
the device.
Time taken. In this case, the time taken between the device and
the antenna is used to calculate the location of the device.
Network assisted Global Positioning System (GPS). a GPS chip
is installed inside a phone and thus the location of the user is
tracked.

Cellular System
Handoffs (typically 30 mseconds):
1. At any time, mobile station (MS) is in one cell and under the control of a BS
2. When a MS leaves a cell, BS notices weak signal
3. BS asks surrounding BSs if they are getting a stronger signal
4. BS transfers ownership to one with strongest signal
5. MTSO assigns new channel to the MS and notifies MS of new boss
Public
Switched
Telephone
Network
(PSTN)
Mobile
Telephone
Switching
Center
(MTSC)
Cell 1
Cell 2
HLR VLR
Frequency Reuse
The concept of frequency reuse is based on assigning to
each cell a group of radio channels used within a small
geographic area
Cells are assigned a group of channels that is completely
different from neighbouring cells
The coverage area of cells is called the footprint and is
limited by a boundary so that the same group of channels can
be used in cells that are far enough apart
Frequency Reuse
Cells with the
same number have
the same set of
frequencies
Frequency Reuse
Frequency Reuse using 7
frequencies allocations
f4
f3
f2
f1
f6
f7
f5 f4
f3
f2
f1
f6
f7
f5
f4
f3
f2
f1
f6
f7
f5
f4
f3
f2
f1
f6
f7
f5
f4
f3
f2
f1
f6
f7
f5
Each cell is generally 4 to 8 miles in diameter with a lower limit
around 2 miles.
Problem with Smaller Clustersize
Interfering cells are closer by when clustersize is smaller.
0G Wireless
Mobile radio telephones were used for military
communications in early 20th century
Car-based telephones first introduced in mid 1940s
Single large transmitter on top of a tall building
Single channel used for sending and receiving
To talk, user pushed a button, enabled transmission and disabled
reception
Became known as push-to-talk in 1950s
CB-radio, taxis, police cars use this technology
IMTS (Improved Mobile Telephone System) introduced in
1960s
Used two channels (one for sending, one for receiving)
No need for push-to-talk
Used 23 channels from 150 MHz to 450 MHz
First-Generation Cellular
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) invented at Bell Labs
and first installed in 1982
Used in England (called TACS) and Japan (called MCS-L1)
Key ideas:
Exclusively analog
Geographical area divided into cells (typically 10-25km)
Cells are small: Frequency reuse exploited in nearby (not adjacent) cells
As compared to IMTS, could use 5 to 10 times more users in same area by
using frequency re-use (divide area into cells)
Smaller cells also required less powerful, cheaper,smaller devices
E
A
D
F
G
C
B
E
A
D
F
G
C
B
E
A
D
F
G
C
B
Cell Design
Cells grouped into a cluster of seven
Letters indicate frequency use
For each frequency, a buffer of two cells is used before reuse
To add more users, smaller cells (microcells) are used
Frequencies may not need to be different in CDMA (soft handoff)
Cellular Network Organization
Cell design (around 10 mile radius)
Served by base station consisting of transmitter,
receiver, and control unit
Base station (BS) antenna is placed in high
places (churches, high rise buildings) -
Operators pay around $500 per month for BS
10 to 50 frequencies assigned to each cell
Cells set up such that antennas of all neighbors are
equidistant (hexagonal pattern)
In North America, two 25-MHz bands allocated to
AMPS
One for transmission from base to mobile unit
One for transmission from mobile unit to base
Approaches to Increase Capacity
Adding/reassigning channels - some channels
are not used
Frequency borrowing frequencies are taken
from adjacent cells by congested cells
Cell splitting cells in areas of high usage
can be split into smaller cells
Microcells antennas move to buildings,
hills, and lamp posts
Security Issues with 1G
Analog cellular phones are insecure
Anyone with an all band radio receiver can listen in
(many scandals)
Theft of airtime:
all band radio receiver connected to a computer
can record 32 bit serial number and phone number
of subscribers when calling
can collect a large database by driving around
Thieves go into business - reprogram stolen
phones and resell them
Second Generation Cellular
Based on digital transmission
Different approaches in US and Europe
US: divergence
Only one player (AMPS) in 1G
Became several players in 2G due to competition
Survivors
IS-54 and IS-135: backward compatible with AMPS frequency
allocation (dual mode - analog and digital)
IS-95: uses spread spectrum
Europe: Convergence
5 incompatible 1G systems (no clear winner)
European PTT development of GSM (uses new
frequency and completely digital communication)
Advantages of Digital
Communications for Wireless
Voice, data and fax can be integrated into a
single system
Better compression can lead to better
channel utilization
Error correction codes can be used for better
quality
Sophisticated encryption can be used
Differences Between First and
Second Generation Systems
Digital traffic channels first-generation systems
are almost purely analog; second-generation
systems are digital
Encryption all second generation systems
provide encryption to prevent eavesdropping
Error detection and correction second-generation
digital traffic allows for detection and correction,
giving clear voice reception
Channel access second-generation systems allow
channels to be dynamically shared by a number of
users
Integrating Data Over Cellular
Direct access to digital channel
Voice and data using one handset
PCS 1900 (GSM-1900)
9.6 kbps circuit switched data
14.4 kbps under definition
Packet mode specified
Short message service
IS-95-based CDMA
13 kbps circuit switched data
Packet mode specified
Short message service
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
Completely designed from scratch (no backward
compatability)
Uses 124 channels per cell, each channel can
support 8 users through TDM (992 users max)
Some channels used for control signals, etc
Several flavors based on frequency:
GSM (900 MHz)
GSM 1800 (called DCS 1800)
GSM 1900 (called DCS 1900) - used in North America
GSM 1900 phone only works in North America.
In Europe, you can transfer your SIM (Subscriber
Identity Module) card to a phone of the correct
frequency. This is called SIM-roaming.
GSM (2G-TDMA)
Circuit mode data
Transparent mode
Non-transparent mode using radio link protocol
Data rate up to 9.6kb/s
Short message service
Limited to 160 characters
Packet mode data: Plans for GSM Phase 2+
Architecture specification very detailed
(500 pages)
Defines several interfaces for multiple
suppliers
Mobile Station and Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Mobile station
Mobile station communicates across Um interface (air
interface) with base station transceiver in same cell as
mobile unit
Mobile equipment (ME) physical terminal, such as a
telephone or PCS
ME includes radio transceiver, digital signal processors and
subscriber identity module (SIM)
GSM subscriber units are generic until SIM is inserted
SIMs roam, not necessarily the subscriber devices
BSS
BSS consists of base station controller and one or more
base transceiver stations (BTS)
BSC reserves radio frequencies, manages handoff of
mobile unit from one cell to another within BSS, and
controls paging
Network Subsystem Center
Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is at core; consists
of several databases
Home location register (HLR) database stores
information about each subscriber that belongs to
it
Visitor location register (VLR) database
maintains information about subscribers currently
physically in the region
Authentication center database (AuC) used for
authentication activities, holds encryption keys
Equipment identity register database (EIR)
keeps track of the type of equipment that exists at
the mobile station
GSM Location Services
Public
Switched
Telephone
Network
(PSTN)
Gateway
MTSC
VLR
HLR
Terminating
MSC
1
1. Call made to mobile unit (cellular phone)
2. Telephone network recognizes number
and gives to gateway MSC
3. MSC cant route further, interrogates
users HLR
4. Interrogates VLR currently serving user
(roaming number request)
5. Routing number returned to HLR and
then to gateway MSC
2
3
4
5
5
6
6. Call routed to terminating MSC
7. MSC asks VLR to correlate call to
the subscriber
8. VLR complies
9. Mobile unit is paged
10. Mobile unit responds, MSCs convey
information back to telephone
7
8
9
BTS
9 10
10
10 10
10
Legend: MTSC= Mobile Telephone Service Center, BTS = Base Transceiver Station
HLR=Home Location Register, VLR=Visiting Location Register
GSM Protocol Architecture
BSSMAP = BSS Mobile Application part
BTSM = BTS management
CM = Connection Management
LAPD = Link Access Protocol, D Channel
Base Transceiver
Station
Mobile
Station
Radio
LAPDm
RRM
Radio
LAPDm
RRM
MM
CM
64 Kbps
LAPD
BTSM
64 Kbps
MTP
SCCP
Base Station
Controller
64 Kbps
LAPD
BTSM
BSSMAP
64Kbps
MTP
SCCP
MM
CM
BSSMAP
Mobile Service
Switching Center
MM = Mobility Management
MTP = Message Transfer Part
RRM = Radio Resources Management
SCCP = Signal Connection Control Point
Functions Provided by Protocols
Protocols above the link layer of the GSM
signaling protocol architecture provide
specific functions:
Radio resource management: controls setup,
termination and handoffs of radio channels
Mobility management: location and security
(MTSO)
Connection management: connects end users
Mobile application part (MAP): between
HLR,VLR
BTS management: management base system
2G CDMA Cellular
IS-95 is the best known example of 2G with
CDMA
Advantages of CDMA for Cellular
Frequency diversity frequency-dependent
transmission impairments have less effect on
signal
Multipath resistance chipping codes used for
CDMA exhibit low cross correlation and low
autocorrelation
Privacy privacy is inherent since spread
spectrum is obtained by use of noise-like signals
Graceful degradation system only gradually
degrades as more users access the system
Drawbacks of CDMA Cellular
Self-jamming arriving transmissions from
multiple users not aligned on chip boundaries
unless users are perfectly synchronized
Near-far problem signals closer to the receiver
are received with less attenuation than signals
farther away
Soft handoff requires that the mobile acquires
the new cell before it relinquishes the old; this is
more complex than hard handoff used in FDMA
and TDMA schemes
Types of Channels Supported by
Forward Link
Pilot (channel 0) - allows the mobile unit to
acquire timing information, provides phase
reference and provides means for signal strength
comparison
Synchronization (channel 32) - used by mobile
station to obtain identification information about
cellular system
Paging (channels 1 to 7) - contain messages for
one or more mobile stations
Traffic (channels 8 to 31 and 33 to 63) the
forward channel supports 55 traffic channels
Forward Traffic Channel Processing Steps
Speech is encoded at a rate of 8550 bps
Additional bits added for error detection
Data transmitted in 2-ms blocks with forward error
correction provided by a convolutional encoder
Data interleaved in blocks to reduce effects of errors
Data bits are scrambled, serving as a privacy mask
Power control information inserted into traffic channel
DS-SS function spreads the 19.2 kbps to a rate of 1.2288
Mbps using one row of 64 x 64 Walsh matrix
Digital bit stream modulated onto the carrier using QPSK
modulation scheme

Wireless Network Evolution to 3
rd
Generation


Enabling Technologies

AMPS

GSM
IS-95


GPRS

CDMA-2000
1XRTT
EDGE
CDMA2000
3XRTT
(UMTS)
2.5G
3G
2G
2 Mbps
500 kbps
150 Kbps
100 Kbps
50 Kbps
10 Kbps
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
TDMA Migration
1G-2G Migration
CDMA Migration
1980
1G
1 Kbps
W-CDMA
(UMTS)
Fig 8-13

Table 8-3

2G Technologies
cdmaOne (IS-95) GSM, DCS-1900 IS-54/IS-136
PDC
Uplink Frequencies
(MHz)
824-849 (Cellular)
1850-1910 (US PCS)
890-915 MHz (Eurpe)
1850-1910 (US PCS)

800 MHz, 1500 Mhz
(Japan)
1850-1910 (US PCS)
Downlink Frequencies 869-894 MHz (US
Cellular)
1930-1990 MHz (US
PCS)
935-960 (Europa)
1930-1990 (US PCS)
869-894 MHz (Cellular)
1930-1990 (US PCS)
800 MHz, 1500 MHz
(Japan)
Deplexing FDD FDD FDD
Multiple Access CDMA TDMA TDMA
Modulation BPSK with Quadrature
Spreading
GMSK with BT=0.3 p/4 DQPSK
Carrier Seperation 1.25 MHz 200 KHz 30 KHz (IS-136)
(25 KHz PDC)
Channel Data Rate 1.2288 Mchips/sec 270.833 Kbps 48.6 Kbps (IS-136)
42 Kbps (PDC)
Voice Channels per
carrier
64 8 3
Speech Coding CELP at 13Kbps
EVRC at 8Kbps
RPE-LTP at 13 Kbps VSELP at 7.95 Kbps
Alternatives to 3G Cellular
Major technical undertaking with many
organizational and marketing overtones.
Questions about the need for the additional
investment for 3G (happy with 2.5G)
Wireless LAN in public places such as shopping
malls and airports offer options
Other high-speed wireless-data solutions compete
with 3G
Mobitex low data rates (nominally 8 Kbps), it uses a narrowband
(2.5KHz) as compared to 30 KHz (GSM) and 5 MHz (3G).
Ricochet: 40 -128 kbps data rates. Bankruptcy
Flash-OFDM: 1.5 Mbps (upto 3 Mbps)
Major Mobile Radio Standards
USA
Standard Type Year
Intro
Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
(MHz)
Modulation Channe
l
BW
(KHz)
AMPS
Cellular 1983 FDMA 824-894 FM 30
USDC
Cellular 1991 TDMA 824-894 DQPSK 30
CDPD
Cellular 1993 FH/Packet 824-894 GMSK 30
IS-95
Cellular/PCS 1993 CDMA 824-894
1800-2000
QPSK/BPSK 1250
FLEX
Paging 1993 Simplex Several 4-FSK 15
DCS-1900
(GSM)
PCS 1994 TDMA 1850-1990 GMSK 200
PACS
Cordless/PC
S
1994 TDMA/FDMA 1850-1990 DQPSK 300
Major Mobile Radio Standards -
Europe
Standard Type Year
Intro
Multiple
Access
Frequency
Band
(MHz)
Modulation Channe
l
BW
(KHz)
ETACS
Cellular 1985 FDMA 900 FM 25
NMT-900
Cellular 1986 FDMA 890-960 FM 12.5
GSM
Cellular/PCS 1990 TDMA 890-960 GMSK 200KHz
C-450
Cellular 1985 FDMA 450-465 FM 20-10
ERMES
Paging 1993 FDMA4 Several 4-FSK 25
CT2
Cordless 1989 FDMA 864-868 GFSK 100
DECT
Cordless 1993 TDMA 1880-1900 GFSK 1728
DCS-1800
Cordless/PC
S
1993 TDMA 1710-1880 GMSK 200
IEEE 802.11 vs 3G Cellular

4G Systems
Wireless networks with cellular data rates of 20
Mbits/second and beyond.
AT&T has began a two-phase upgrade of its wireless
network on the way to 4G Access.
Nortel developing developing features for Internet
protocol-based 4G networks
Alcatel, Ericsson, Nokia and Siemens found a new
Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) for research on
wireless communications beyond 3G.
Many new technologies and techniques (multiplexing,
intelligent antennas, digital signal processing)
Industry response is mixed (some very critical)
Engineering Issues
Steps in MTSO controlled call
TDMA design
CDMA design
Handoff
Power control
Traffic engineering
Steps in an MTSO Controlled
Call between Mobile Users
Mobile unit initialization
Mobile-originated call
Paging
Call accepted
Ongoing call
Handoff
Call blocking
Call termination
Call drop
Calls to/from fixed and remote mobile subscriber
Mobile Wireless TDMA Design
Considerations
Number of logical channels (number of time slots
in TDMA frame): 8
Maximum cell radius (R): 35 km
Frequency: region around 900 MHz
Maximum vehicle speed (V
m
):250 km/hr
Maximum coding delay: approx. 20 ms
Maximum delay spread (
m
): 10 s
Bandwidth: Not to exceed 200 kHz (25 kHz per
channel)
Mobile Wireless CDMA Design
Considerations
Soft Handoff mobile station temporarily
connected to more than one base station
simultaneously
RAKE receiver when multiple versions of a
signal arrive more than one chip interval apart,
RAKE receiver attempts to recover signals from
multiple paths and combine them
This method achieves better performance than simply
recovering dominant signal and treating remaining
signals as noise
What is WiMax?
Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access
Last mile wireless broadband access
Alternative to cable and DSL
Deliver data, voice, video
Support hundreds to thousands of
homes/business
Defined by IEEE as 802.16
Typical target environment:
Targets fixed, portable, and mobile stations
Environments with and without line of sight
Cell radius of 3-10 kilometers
Capacities of up to 40 Mbps per channel
Mobile network deployments of up to 15
Mbps, 3 km radius


Builds on and
Extends WiFi Technology
Advantages of WiFi are:
Easy to deploy, unlicensed spectrum, low
cost
Supports (limited) mobility
But WiMax needs to address the
following:

WiFi limitations

Susceptible to interference
802.11 targets short-range indoor
operation (mostly)
Security is a concern
Limited level of mobility
WiMax is intended to complement WiFi
WiMax Forum: promotes WiMax and
looks after interoperability
WiMax Deployment