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Balanced Diet & Exchange

Presented By ,
Sana Saleem
Eating a balanced diet means choosing a
wide variety of foods and drinks from all the
food groups. It also means eating certain
things in moderation, namely saturated fat,
trans fat, cholesterol, refined sugar, salt and
alcohol. The goal is to take in nutrients you
need for health at the recommended levels.

A balanced diet is one that gives your body
the nutrition it needs to function properly. In
order to get truly balanced nutrition, you
should obtain the majority of your daily
calories from fresh fruits and vegetables,
whole grains, and lean proteins.
Where to Begin:-

Two examples of a balanced eating pattern
are the USDA Food Guide at
MyPyramid.gov and the Dietary
Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH
Both eating patterns emphasize fruits,
vegetables and whole grains, as well as low
or no-fat dairy products, and lean animal
proteins. Fish is recommended at least two
times per week, beans, nuts and seeds are
encouraged, and unsaturated fats are
always the fats of choice - like olive oil.

A persons daily calorie intake should be
based on age, gender, and physical activity
level. Men generally need more calories
than women, and active people need more
calories than sedentary (inactive) people.
children ages 2 to 8: 1,000 to 1,400
active women ages 14 to 30: 2,400
active men ages 14 to 30: 2,800 to 3,000
A balanced diet is important because your
bodys organs and tissues need proper
nutrition to work effectively. Without good
nutrition, your body is more prone to
disease, infection, fatigue, and poor
performance. Children with a poor diet run
the risk of growth and developmental
Rising levels of obesity and diabetes in
America are prime examples of the effects
of poor diet and lack of exercise.
Heart disease Cancer
Stroke Diabetes

Balanced Diet Guide
The Main Food Groups
How to Achieve a Balanced Diet

Protein(Meat Group)
Meats and beans are primary sources
of protein, which is essential for proper
muscle and brain development. Lean,
low-fat meats such as chicken, fish,
and certain cuts of beef and pork are
the best option.
Nuts and beans, such as lentils, peas,
almonds, sunflower seeds, and
walnuts, are also good sources of
protein. Soy-based products are
excellent sources of protein and are
healthy alternatives to meat.
Fruit and Vegetables
Vegetables are primary
sources of essential
vitamins and minerals.
Dark, leafy greens
generally contain the
most nutrition and can be
eaten at every meal.
Examples include
spinach, kale, green
beans, broccoli, and
collard greens.
Fruit and vegetables give
us fibre and vitamins and
Grains and pulses give
us carbohydrates and
Nuts are another source
of protein.
Dairy Products
Dairy foods are made from
milk (usually cows milk, but
can be from other animals like
goats or sheep). Dairy foods
give us proteins and fats.
They are also a good source of
calcium which is good for
bones and teeth.These foods
Cheese (hard, soft, cottage);
Food high in milk or milk
Starches, Sugars and Fats
Sometimes foods are classified into starches,
sugars and fats. Starches includes potatoes and
provide mainly carbohydrates. Carbohydrates give
us the energy to carry on with our day-to-day lives.
Foods high in sugars include those naturally
occurring as in fruit, and those containing
refined/processed sugars such as sweets,
chocolates, cakes etc. We need to limit our intake
of refined sugars these are empty calories which
give an immediate boost.

A small amount of fat is important for health,
but eating too much fat is unhealthy. It leads to
clogged arteries (restricted blood supply), high
cholesterol and becoming overweight.

Fats constitute approximately b/w 20 35 % of the
energy in the human diet. Because fat is energy
rich and provides 9 kcal/g of energy
Protein is an other source of energy provide
4kcal/g in human body .(10 -35%)
Carbohydrates 55 65 %(4kcal/g)

Exchange List
Exchange Lists Diet Planning The US food
Exchange System is intended to help
people with diabetes control the levels of
glucose and lipids in the blood by:
Controlling the grams of carbohydrate and
fat they consume. And other diet planners
have found the system invaluable for
achieving calorie control and moderation
Weight loss, gain, CVD diets, HD diets,
Renal diets, HTN diets.
Comparison to the Food
Guide Pyramid:

Comparison to the Food Guide Pyramid
Food Guide Pyramid Sorts foods by their
protein, vitamin, and mineral contents
Exchange System Sorts foods into three
main groups: Carbohydrates Fats Meat and
Meat Alternative/Substitutes Each group is
then subdivided into several exchange lists
of foods

The concept of "exchange," or "substitution," of similar
foods was developed by the American Dietetic
Association, the American Diabetes Association, and
the U.S. Public Health Service.
Starch List:

Contains 15 grams CHO, 3 grams PRO, 0-1 grams
fat, and 80 calories If the starchy food contains fat,
count as 1 starch exchange plus 1 fat exchange
Examples: Biscuits (1/2c), corn bread (2in. cube),
popcorn (3c)
Fruit List:
Fruit List One fruit exchange equals 15 grams CHO
and 60 calories Examples of some of the
exchanges: 1 small apple, orange, banana, kiwi
medium peach canned fruit ( cup) juice (-1/3
cup-depending on the type)

Each vegetable exchange contains about 5 gram of
carbohydrate, 2 grams of protein, no fat, and
25 Calories.
Unless stated otherwise one exchange (serving)
1/2 cup of cooked vegetables or vegetable juice
1 cup of raw vegetables
Choose 2-4 vegetables daily
Onion Cabbage
Eggplant Okra

Each milk exchange contains about 12 grams of
carbohydrate and 8grams of protein.
Each skim or nonfat milk serving also contains 0-
3grams fat and 90 calories.
Each Low-Fat milk serving also contains 5 grams
of fat and 120 calories.
Each whole milk serving also contains 8 grams of
fat and 150 calories.
Skim milk 1 cup (8 oz.)
Plain low-fat yogurt 1 cup (8 oz.)
Whole milk 1 cup (8 oz.)
Whole milk plain yogurt 1 cup (8 oz.)
Meat Group
Very lean meat and substitutes list
One exchange equal 0g CHO ,7g Protein and 0-1 g
Fat =35 Calories.
Poultry: Chicken (white meat, no skin) I oz
Fish: Fresh or frozen. I oz
Shellfish: Clams, crab, lobster, l o z
Cheese with 1 g or less fat per ounce:
Fat-free or low-fat cottage cheese. . . . . . . .1/4 c u
Fat - free cheese.. . . . . . . . . I oz
One exchange equal 0 g CHO 7 g Protein, 3 g Fat
and 55 calories.
Beef (ground
Lamb (roast, chop,
leg) 1oz
chicken(white meat
with skin)1oz
Fish (Oyster)
5%fat cottage
cheese c
Liver heart (high in

Each fat exchange (serving) contains about 5 grams of fat
and 45 calories.
Unsaturated Fats (Poly)One serving equals
Margarine 1 tsp.
Margarine, diet 2 tsp.
Mayonnaise 1 tsp.
Mayonnaise, diet 2 tsp.
Oils (canola and olive oil ) 1 tsp.
Olives 10 small or 5 large
Salad dressings 2 tsp.
walnuts 4 halves
Spanish peanuts or pistachios 20
Monounsaturated Fat.
Avocado, medium . .2 Tbsp (1 oz)
Oil (canola, olive, peanut) . . .1 tsp
Nuts(almonds. . . . . . . 6 nuts
mixed (50% peanuts) . . . .6 nuts
Peanuts . . . . . . . 10nuts
Saturated Fats
Butter 1 tsp.
Coconut, fresh 2 Tbsp.
Cream or sour cream 2 Tbsp.