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By :-
Vaghasiya Bhadresh :- 201304101310003
Guided by
Mr. Hiten Kheni

-Although the introduction of Reinforced Concrete flat
slab floors is a significant advancement in the building
technology, historical literature on their development is
ambiguous. Up to 1910- 1911 slab, beam and girder
system reigned supreme but at this time the girderless
floors sometimes called as Mushroom slab, which is also
known as flat slab begin to build.
-Claud A. P. Turner was one of the early advocates of flat
slab system known as mushroom system. About 1908,
flat slab began and recognized as acceptable floor
system. C.A.P. Turner constructed flat slabs in U.S.A. in
1906 mainly using intuitive and conceptual ideas, which
was start of this type of construction.

-Flat slabs are being used mainly in office
buildings due to reduced formwork cost, fast
excavation, and easy installation. Flat slab system
possesses many advantages in terms of
architectural flexibility, use of space, easier
formwork, and shorter construction time.
-Architectural demand for better illumination,
lesser fire resistance of sharp corners present in
the form of beams, increase in the formwork
cost, optimum use of space leads to the new
concept in the field of structural engineering as
Reinforced concrete flat slabs.
-One of the key aspects of successful planning is the
constructability of the building. This is of paramount
importance for the success of the project since
constructability most markedly affects the time to
completion of a turn-key project and thus the final cost
to the owner.
-Because the major part of the total cost of large
developments is financing cost rather than actual
construction cost, the completion time is often a more
important consideration than material consumption.
-If we see the total cost of the building, only the
structural cost is about 30 to 50% of the total
construction cost and on the other hand more than half
of the structural cost is labour cost, related mainly to
-The time required constructing one floor and the time
required for the commencement of fit-out work such
as electrical and mechanical services, suspended
ceilings and decorating, are major factors influencing
the time to completion of the building.
-These considerations demonstrate that the
optimization of the floor framing with regard to weight,
structural depth and constructability goes a long way
towards successful planning.
-As the floor system plays an important role in the
overall cost of a building, a post-tensioned floor system
is invented which reduces the time for the construction
and finally the cost of the structure.
-In some countries, including the U.S., Australia, South
Africa, Thailand and India, a great number of large
buildings have been successfully constructed using
post-tensioned floors.
-The reason for this lies in its decisive technical and economical
advantages. The most important advantages offered by post-
tensioning systems are as follows -
By comparison with reinforced concrete, a considerable saving
in concrete and steel since, due to the working of the entire
concrete cross-section more slender designs are possible.
Smaller deflections compared to with steel and reinforced
concrete structures.
Good crack behavior and therefore permanent protection of
the steel against corrosion.
Almost unchanged serviceability even after considerable
overload, since temporary cracks close again after the overload
has disappeared.
High fatigue strength, since the amplitude of the stress
changes in the prestressing steel under alternating loads are
quite small.
If a significant part of the load is resisted by post-tensioning the non-
prestressed reinforcement can be simplified and standardized to a
large degree. Furthermore, material handling is reduced since the total
tonnage of steel (non-prestressed + prestressed) and concrete is less
than for a Reinforced Concrete floor.
Assembling of precast elements by post-tensioning avoids
complicated reinforcing bar connections with insitu closure pours, or
welded steel connectors, and thus can significantly reduce erection
Usually the permanent floor load is largely balanced by draped post-
tensioning tendons so that only the weight of the wet concrete of the
floor above induces flexural stresses. These are often of the same
order as the design live load stresses. Hence back-propping of one
floor below is usually sufficient.
Post-tensioning usually balances most of the permanent loads thus
significantly reducing deflections and tensile stresses.
The P/A stress provided by post-tensioning may prevent tensile
stresses causing the floor to crack.
To understand the flat slab structures
To understand the Post-tensioning methods
To analyse & design the flat slab manually by using
standards and by STAAD.Pro software
To analyse & design the PT-flat slab by using STAAD.Pro
Moment comparision for flat slab from data by manual
and software
Moment comparision for flat slab & PT-flat slab from
data by software
Cost comparison between flat slab & PT-flat slab
Graphical representation for cost comparision
Amy Reineke Trygestad, Post-Tensioning Opening for Two-Way Flat Plate
Construction, Portland Cement Association, October 2005.
Post-Tensioned Concrete Floors in Multi-storey Buildings - By A. M.
Post-Tensioned Slabs Published by VSL International Ltd. (4.2 VSL report
Post-Tensioned in Buildings Published by VSL International Ltd. (4.1 VSL
report series).
IS 456:2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete, - Code of Practice,
Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.