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HNC Lecture 1
Material Chemistry
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Agenda
Induction task review:
http://resources.schoolscience.co.uk/ICI/11-14/materials/index.html
Introduction to the Unit
Atomic Structure
Valence Electrons
Chemical Bonding
Crystal Structures
Metals, Ceramics, Polymers and Composites
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Historically
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Historically
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Historically: only 4 Elements
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Historically
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Historically
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Material Chemistry
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Nomenclature
Composition
Isotropic / Anisotropic
Allotropic (Carbon Iron, .. )
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Matter
Solids have a defined shape
and volume
Liquids have a fixed volume
but flow to assume the shape
of their containers
Gases completely fill their
containers, regardless of
volume.
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Properties of Matter
Because they differ in
size, the two samples of
sulfur have different
extensive properties, such
as mass and volume
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In contrast, their intensive
properties, including color,
melting point, and
electrical conductivity, are
identical
Material Chemistry
Matter, is anything that takes up space and has
mass. Four states of matter are observable in
everyday life: solid, liquid, gas and plasma
An Atom, is the smallest chemical unit of matter
An Element, is a material, which cannot be
broken down, or changed into another substance
using chemical means
The mass of an object is the quantity of matter it
contains
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Atomic Radii
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Periodic Table
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Periodic Table Clock
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Atom and Electron Shells
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Carbon and its Allotropes
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Sub-Atomic Particles
Proton, a stable subatomic particle occurring
in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric
charge equal in magnitude to that of an
electron
Neutron, a subatomic particle of about the
same mass as a proton but without an electric
charge
Elements that contain different numbers of
neutrons are called isotopes
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Sub-Atomic Particles
An Electron, is a stable subatomic particle
with a charge of negative electricity, found
in all atoms and acting as the primary
carrier of electricity in solids
Only the electrons of atoms interact, so
they determine an atoms chemical
behaviour
Electrons occupy electron shells
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Sub-Atomic Particles
The Atomic Number, is the number of protons,
found in the nucleus of an atom of that element
Valence, the combining capacity of an atom:
Positive, if the atom has electrons to give up
Negative, if the atom has spaces to fill
Stable, when outer electron shells contain eight
electrons (the octet rule)
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Sub-Atomic Particles
A Valence Electron, is associated
with an atom and that can
participate in the formation of a
chemical bond
It is the electrons in an atoms
outermost shell, that interact with
other atoms
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Sub-Atomic Particles
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Valence Electrons
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Valence Electrons
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Ions
An Ion, is an atom that has lost or
gained an electron
An Anion, is an ion with a negative
charge
A Cation, is an ion with a negative
charge
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Understanding Ions
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Understanding Ions
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Understanding Ions
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Understanding Ions
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Chemical Combinations
A Molecule, is formed when two or more
atoms join together chemically
They are connected together so strongly,
that they behave as a single particle
A Compound, is a molecule that contains
at least two different atoms
All compounds are molecules, but not all
molecules are compounds
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Chemical Combinations
An ALLOY is a
macroscopically homogeneous
substance, which possesses
metallic properties and is
composed of two or more
species of atom, one of which
is a metal
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Chemical Combinations
A Mixture, is made from different
substances, that are not chemically
joined (separable)
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Chemical Bonding
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Chemical Bonding
Primary Bonds, involve sharing or donating
electrons between atoms to form a more stable
electron configuration
Secondary Bonds, are due to the attractions of
electric dipoles in atoms or molecules. Dipoles
are created when positive and negative charge
centers exist. Unlike primary bonding, there is
no transfer or sharing of electrons
Weaker than Primary Bonds
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Primary Bonds
Ionic Bonding = transfer of electrons
Covalent Bonding = sharing of
electrons between non-metals
Metallic Bonding = the electrostatic
force of attraction between free
delocalised electrons, (the electron sea
model) and positive ions
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Lewis Periodic Table
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Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl)
interact by electron transfer
to form an Ionic Bond
Ionic Bonds
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2 ions giving SALT
Covalent Bonds
A covalent bond, forming H2 ,
where two hydrogen atoms share
the two electrons
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Covalent Bonds
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Covalent Bonds
Hydrogen atoms can each form
one covalent bond, while Carbon
atoms can each form four covalent
bonds. Four pairs of electrons are
shared in a methane molecule CH4
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Metallic Bonds
The Electron Sea Model
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Secondary Bonds
Electronegativity, is a measure, of how
attractive an atom is to electrons (8 is the magic
number)
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Secondary (weaker) Bonds
van der Waals forces, are forces of attraction which
exist between all atoms and molecules
Only significant if the atoms are really close
Hydrogen Bonding, is the electromagnetic attractive
interaction between polar molecules, in which hydrogen
is bound to a highly electronegative atom
Hydrogen bonding between molecules in ice results in
an expanded structure (increase in volume) which
causes the density of ice to be less than that of water
at low temperatures. This is why ice floats on water
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Properties of Bonding
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
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Bonding Summary
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
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Physical Properties
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
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Material Structure
Crystalline
Amorphous
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Lattice Structure
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Giants Causeway
Crystalline Structure
Unique arrangement of atoms or
molecules in a crystalline liquid or solid
Highly ordered structure, occurring due to
the intrinsic nature of molecules, to form
symmetric patterns
Periodic (infinitely repeating, termed long-
term order) array of 3D 'boxes', known as
unit cells
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The 7 Basic Cell Structures
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The 14 Possible
Bravais Lattice
Structures
Lattice Structure
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Escher
http://www.mcescher.com/gallery/symmetry/
Lattice Structure
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Escher: two possible unit cell structures
Bravais Lattice
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Robert Hooke
Long Range Order
Example Lattice Structures
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Typical Unit Cell Structure
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Amorphous Structure
Any noncrystalline solid in which
the atoms and molecules are not
organized in a definite lattice
pattern (no long-term order)
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Amorphous Structure
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Crystal Structures
Crystal Lattice, the symmetrical
three-dimensional arrangement of
atoms inside a crystal
HCP , Hexagonal Close Packed
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HCP Properties
Hexagonal unit cell with one atom at
each corner, one at the center of the
hexagonal faces, and three in the middle
30 metallic elements have this structure
Ductile enough for some deformation
processes, but not as many as FCC
materials
More anisotropic than FCC and BCC
materials
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HCP Applications
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Cubic Crystal Structures
Cubic
BCC
Body Center
FCC
Face Center
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BCC Properties
Unit cell with one atom at each corner and one in
the middle
21 metallic elements have this structure
Ductile, particularly when hot, allowing for
various deformation process
Generally tough at and above room temperature
Exhibits a transition from ductile to brittle at low
temperatures (see Liberty Boat)
Strength is temperature dependent
Can be hardened with interstitial solutes
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BCC Applications
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FCC Properties
Unit cell with one atom at each corner and
one at each face
17 metallic elements have this structure
Very ductile when pure, work hardening
rapidly, but softening again when annealed,
allowing for various deformation processes
Retain their ductility and toughness at
absolute zero
Generally tough
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FCC Applications
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Number of Atoms per Unit Cell
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Simple Cubic Cell Lattice
Nearest Neighbours
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Therefore, 6 chemical bonds
Packing Density
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FCC Packing Density
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Students to repeat for
simple cubic and BCC
Crystal Structure Summary
Complete
description of
atomic
arrangement
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Bravias Lattice
point environment
set of points in
space
=
Basis
atom / molecule
/atom group at
each lattice point
Characterisation of Atomic Structure by x-Ray how we know that gold is FCC
x-Rays have very short wavelength atomic .. measured in Angstroms (0.01 - 100)
Material Property Classifications
Mechanical
Electrical
Thermal
Magnetic
Optical
Deteriorative
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Material Characteristics
Processing
Structure
Properties
Performance
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Solid Materials
Metals
Ceramics
Polymers
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Metals
Properties and why they have them?
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
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Ceramics
Properties and why they have them?
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
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Polymers
Properties and why they have them?
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
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Composites
Properties and why they have them?
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
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The Future .. Graphene?
The Thinnest material on earth
One atom thick
hence the first 2D material
Best heat conductor
yet fire resistant
Best electrical conductor
200 x stronger than steel*
Yet ultra light and incredibly flexible
Impermeable .. enormous potential
Transparent
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So What?
Density
Electrical Conduction
Thermal Conduction
Ductility
Question .. define the term Metal?
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Density
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Density
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Density
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Density
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Density

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