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Pressing is the application of heat, moisture, and

pressure to shape, mould, or crease fabrics,
garments, or garment parts into the geometric forms.
Pressing may be done:
(a) During assembly to facilitate other
operations and improve quality.
(b) Final finishing process.

The three elements of pressing are:
(1) Heat

(2) Steam

(3) Pressure

Heat is needed in most pressing processes to soften
fibres and stabilize and set the desired shape.
Temperatures must be selected to suit the fibres,
yarns, and fabrics used in a particular style.
Sources of heat include heated surfaces and steam.
Steam (moisture) is the fastest means of transferring
heat into the fabric.
Heating water in a pressure boiler creates steam
Higher the pressure, hotter and drier the steam.
Effective use of steam reduces the time for
pressing and the amount of pressure required to
shape the garment.
Different fabrics require different amounts of
moisture and heat.
Amount and dryness of the steam are critical to the
effectiveness of the pressing operation.
Excessive moisture may cause shrinkage and colour
Pressure is applied to alter shape and increase the
permanency of the moulding or creasing.

Too much pressure may distort fabric surfaces,
flatten textures, and create permanent garment
and/or fabric damage.
Pressure may be applied by a mechanical device or
by steam.
Mechanical pressure requires a combination of
solid surfaces such a tables, bucks, or irons to
mould the garment.

Mechanical pressure is specified by the amount of
force per unit of time.
When a buck press or shaping device is not used,
air or steam pressure depends on the shape of the
Air or steam is blown into the garment to expand
to its full size, while heat and/or steam are
Moisture and heat are extracted by the use of a
vacuum return system that extracts steam as it
penetrates the fabric.

The vacuum pulls the steam through the fabric,
thus drying and quick cooling the fabric to set the
new shape.
In the 1890s, mens suits were pressed with
gasfed irons weighing as much as 20 pounds.
Gas was fed by a rubber hose to the centre of the
iron and then ignited to produce heat.
With this system, a presser could press 10 mens
suit in a 10hour day.

Factors Affecting Elements Of

1. The types of material used.

2. The shape or form that is required in the final

3. The degree of permanency needed.

1. To smooth away unwanted creases and crush marks
In garment manufacturing accidental creases from
mistakes in previous under pressing; crushes from
handling by no. of operators or from tightly tied bundles
2. To make crease where the design of the garment
requires them
Creases design features in garments (series of
creases pleating)
Pressing hems and cuff edges, front edges, top
edges of waist bands, pocket flaps and patch pockets
3. To mould the garment to the contour of the body
Enhancement of shape already largely determined
by seams and darts (mainly effected in wool or wool
rich garments)
Chief areas where moulding takes place ends of
darts, collars, shoulders, armholes and sleeve heads
and sometimes trouser legs
4. To prepare garment for further sewing
Underpressing pressing operation on partly
constructed garments
UP also makes further sewing easier to do, or
easier to do to a high quality std.
5. To finish the fabric after manufacturing the
There are two types of pressing-
1)- In-Process pressing
InProcess pressing, or Under Pressing, is
done while a garment is under construction.
It is used to crease, shape, and/or smooth
components for more accurate seaming.
Sharp edges on garment components increase
accuracy in sewing
2)- Off- Pressing
Finish Pressing, or OffPressing, adds the final
shape to seams and garments.
The time, , temperature, pressure, and types of
mechanical devices used for pressing depend on:
(1) Types of materials used.
(2) Shape or form that is desired in the final
(3) Degree of permanency needed.

The equipment used for pressing is designed to
control the heat, moisture, and pressure applied
during the pressing operation.
Some equipment is designed to mould or set a
special shape into the garment.
Solidsurface pressing equipment uses a firm
surface to apply pressure, while steam and heat
mould the fabric, garment, or garment, parts.
Pressure may be applied through rolling action,
gliding action, or compression.
Solidsurface pressing equipment consists of buck
presses, irons, blocks, dies, rollers, collapsible
forms, and creasing and folding blades.
Types Of Pressing Equipments
1. Buck presses.
2. Iron pressing.
3. Block or die pressing.
4. Form pressing.
5. Steamers.
6. Steam tunnels.

These are commonly used by manufactures of
slacks, skirts , and jackets.
1. Lower buck
2. Moveable head with a linkage system
3. Buck padding stem and vacuum system frame
4. Manual or automatic control for steams, vacuum,
heat and pressure.
It may be used for in-process pressing & finish
Buck Pressing Machine
It is a manual molding operation in which pressure
and heat are applied with a flat contact surface.
Components of iron pressing-
1. Iron
2. Power line.
3. Bed buck.
4. Iron support system.
5. Steam and vacuum system.
It is used extensively for in-process pressing and
for shaping components parts , as well as final

It is a molding process that establishes a
products conformance to a form.
It may change the surface characteristics and
dimension of a product.
The fabric is placed on a fixed form before
pressure heat and steam is applied.
It is used to crease patch pockets and pocket
Buck Press Machine
Form presses are made in the approximate
shape of the finished garments.
Steam is forced from the inside of the form
through garment while the form expands to fill all
the space inside the garment.
It is designed to reduce the amount of
positioning and re-positioning time.
Form Pressing
These are the pressing machine that uses only
steam to mold and smooth the garment.
Types of steamers-
1. steam jets.
2. steam guns.
3. steam puffs.
4. steam tunnels.
These devices may be used either to form and
stabilize garment shape.
Steam Tunnels
These are used for final pressing.
Garments are de-wrinkled within a chamber by the
average pressure of circulating steam.
Garments are carried over the nozzle of a steam jet
in order for the garment to receive the full force of
the steam pressure.
It reduces labor costs and process garment at a
rate of 1200 to 3600 units per hour.
Advancements in finishing technology focus on several
Greater versatility.

More precision in determining exact pressing requirement of
fabrics and finishes.

Improved quality.

Energy saving
Plant engineering for the functioning of the pressing
machines in the garment industry, apart from the
electric parts, concerns the fluids necessary to run the
machines, namely pneumatic air, steam and vacuum.
It must be kept in mind that without these fluids, a
pressing machine cannot work.
Generally, there is a mentality to
consider an ironing table as self
contained,i.e.,with a built-in vacuum.
This may be applicable, for example,
in in-line preparation (sewing dept)
where it could be awkward to have
main vacuum pipes connected to
each and every table.
Centralised vacuum plant
Centralised air compressor room
In a centralised vacuum plant,
one motor provides vacuum to
40-50 tables, implying money
saved in power and almost
trouble-free maintenance.
There are machines which require
up to 300 cubic metres of
air per hour and it is unthinkable to
have a single source of vacuum per
machine, which could prove too
costly and too
noisy. The noise is due to vacuum
motors which are far from silent and
are usually
placed in the so called power room
to avoid any noise pollution inside
the factory.
Vacuum pipe in the pressing room
It is used mainly for operating:

Advanced features in modern machines
Pneumatic tools
Cooling systems
Sewing Workstations
Air curtains
Vacuum cleaning systems
Overhead material handling
systems, etc.
It does work and this work energy must be related to air supply, its
volume and its pressure.

Pneumatic cylinders
Normally air at atmospheric pressure
(1 Bar) is compressed mechanically to a
higher pressure of 5 to 13 Bar.

Factors causing excessive pressure
drops are improperly sized air pipes,
inefficient pipe layout, pipe scaling,
corrosion and material.
Pressure drop causes compressors to
work harder and thereby consume
more energy.

When compressed air moves within a
pipe, losses are incurred due to friction
and turbulence. Rough surfaces cause
more turbulent air flow and higher
friction. These line losses in a particular
component are expressed as pressure
Pneumatic distribution systems
The vacuum units can be
connected in series or in
There are various machines which
produce compressed air. The most
utilised types in the clothing industry
-- reciprocating compressors
-- vane rotating compressors
-- screw rotating compressors
Vacuum pipe Steam line
Pressing machine in operation at Silver Spark,
The choice of one of these types is
related to the quantity of air required
and to its pressure.
Flat Bed Press Pneumatic

Head is suspended on rocker arms for self
aligning with the bed.
Machined pressing surface.
Pneumatic raising and lowering with push
Perforated bed prodded with sponge
padding. Powerful centrifugal suction for
moisture exhaust.
Automatic timed release of the head at
preset time.
Automatic digital temperature control of the
Heating Steam Electric - 0.5" BSP 15 KW
Air Consumption - 100 LTS/MIN

Electro-Pneumatic Pressing Machine
Machine does the pressing itself,
automatically. Operator only settles and
gets it out.
One person can operate on two machines
at the same time.
When the first machine starts pressing
operator settle down clothing on the
second one and will just push a button to
start pressing.

Steam Pressure 3-4 bar
Steam inlet 1/2"
Condense outlet 1/2"
Vacuum connection 2"
Air pressure 6 bar
Air inlet 1/2
Electrical inception 220/380 V
ironing board for the finishing of jacket,
coat, overcoat linings.
Due to strong vacuuming very quick
ironing is achieved.
Using the water pistol for humidifying the
lining is an easy way of ironing when the
process is mode with an iron without
steam and electricity.
Electricity 380 V
Motor Power 0.37 kW
heating Power 1.5 kW
Capacity 30 Jackets
Pneumatic Ironing Board
Ironing Machine With a Cover
Pneumatic Central System
Used especially for ironing wool pull-overs.
Due to the electro pneumatic system
pressure steam, vacuum, staying closed
time may all be regulated by buttons.
Energy saving is achieved since it is not
heated by electricity.
Works with central steam, vacuum, air and
220 Volt electricity.
Vacuum Motor Central System
Steam Pressure 4 bar
Air pressure 6 bar
Steam inlet and outlet 1/2"
Vacuum Outlet 2"
Steam Consumption 50 kg/h
Air Consumption 90 kg/h
Capacity 40 unit/h
Books referred:
1. Apparel Manufacturing Handbook: Analysis, Principles and Practice: Jacob
2. Carr and Latham's Technology of Clothing Manufacture

Sites Referred:
1. http://www.energymanagertraining.com/equipment_all/boiler/pdf/0507CoalFired

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