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P KOTESWARA RAO

DESIGN AND ENGINERING


DESIGN:
CONCEPT, PHILOSOPHY, VISUALISATION

ENGINEERING:
CALCULATIONS, SIZING, APPLICATION OF
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
WHY PULVERISATION ?
Milling system
BASIC INPUTS
TURBINE HEAT RATE: 1900 kCal/kWh
COAL : typical 600 MW unit









Component Unit
Design
Coal Worst Coal
Best
Coal
Total Moisture % 12 14.5 10
Ash Content % 34.1 37.4 32.4
Volatile Matter % 24.6 21.5 26.7
Fixed Carbon % 29.3 26.6 30.9
Gross Calorific value Kcal/Kg 3800 3200 4400
HGI 50 50 50
Boiler efficiency % 85 84 86
UHR kCal/kWh 2235 2261 2209
SCC kg/kWh 0.588 0.707 0.502
Coal per hour TPH 353 424 301
HGI=6.93 F+13 , F-fineness through 200 mesh
THE BIG FIVE
No of spare mills
Pulverizer design coal



Unit turn down
Product fineness


Wear allowance


No. of mills
Vertical Spindle, Bowl Mills/ XRP/ MPS mill/ Ball and Race or
E-type Mills/Tube Ball Mills.

Design Coal
with max moisture with 85% mill loading at TMCR
Other than Tube Ball mills N+2
Tube Ball mills - N+1
Worst coal
with max moisture with 100% mill loading at TMCR
Other than Tube Ball mills N+1
Tube Ball mills - N
(Min 1.5% unburnt carbon shall be considered.)

Not less than 8,000 for the Grinding
elements.
Grinding rings/elements hardness not less
than 550 BHN.
Minimum 20,000 hours for seals
Minimum 15,000 hours for mill discharge
valves
Minimum 25,000 hours for liners of
classifier cones and vanes of mills


Guaranteed wear life

Four Operations
Coal drying,
Transport,
Grinding and
Classification

Size reduction is energy intensive and generally very inefficient with regard to
energy consumption.
In many processes the actual energy used in breakage of particles is less than
5% of the overall energy consumption.

Coal Drying
Heat given by hot air = (Ha)= Qa x (Ti-To) x Ca
Heat required to dry the coal= (Hc)= Qc x {(1-Mo) x
(To - Trc) x Cc + Mo x (To-Trc) x Cm + Mo x Re x Ee}

Moisture in coal (Mo) % 20
Coal flow (BMCR) TPH 353
Nos. of mills in service 5
Coal flow / Mill (Qc) Kg/ Sec 20
Mill outlet temperature (To)
o
C 70
Relative humidity (Rh) % 67
Constants
Heat capacity (dry coal) - Cc kJ/kg/C 0.92
Heat capacity of moisture (Cm) kJ/kg/C 4.174
Inherent moisture in coal % 12
% of moisture evaporated (Re) % 40
Evaporating enthalpy of water (Ee) kJ/kg 2334
Heat capacity of air (Ca) kJ/kg/C 1.009
Raw coal temperature (Trc)
o
C 32
Heat required to dry the coal (Hc) 4832.382
Air coal ratio 1.95
Airflow rate in mill (Qa) kg/ sec 38.24167
Mill inlet temperature
o
C 195.2372
The major goal of pneumatic conveying of solids is to maximize the carrying
capacity of the installation and carry flows with high-solids concentration
("dense-phase flow").
In pulverized coal combustion the ratio of coal to carrying gas is determined by
systems and combustion considerations and is usually in the range of y = 0.5-
0.6 kg/kg ("dilute phase transport").
Assuming a coal density r
c
= 1.5 x 10
3
kg/m
3
, and the density of the carrying
gas as r
g
= 0.9 kg/m
3
, the volume fraction of the coal can be shown to be very
small, 0.036 % .
The interparticle effects can therefore be neglected for steady state operation.
An important aerodynamic characteristic of the particles is their terminal
velocity (the free-fall velocity in stagnant air) which for a spherical particle of d
= 0.1 mm has an approximate value of 0.3m/sec.
Experience shows that due to non-uniformities of flow behind bends, and to
avoid settling of solids in horizontal sections of the transport line, a gas
velocity of ~ V = 20 m/sec has to be chosen.
Pneumatic Carrying of Particles
The classification of solid particles according to their size in the spiral house of a
cyclone is illustrated by Figure.

The particles can migrate toward the outer wall or the exit tube;


From the force balance on a particle and knowing the path of the
gas in the cyclone, the radius rl can be determined, which will be
the limiting radius for the radial penetration of a particle of
diameter, d.
Classification
classifier the leaving coal the of mass Total
Range Size specified the in Particles Coal of Mass
Classifier A Efficiency


Classifier modelling
Classifier CFD
For a straight pipe of diameter D the pressure drop per
unit length of pipe is given by

D
V
x
p
primaryair
* 2
r

Where,
*
is a coefficient, analogous to coefficient of friction.
sin
*
pg pf air

Where air is the coefficient of wall friction for air; ;
pf, is the coefficient of friction for the particle in the pipe; and
pg is a coefficient corresponding to the weight of the particle.

Transport between Mill and the Burner
Maximum loading of the mill with worst coal and
design coal (for sizing, whichever is higher) -
90% at 100% TMCR
Input coal size to pulveriser-25 mm and below
with 15% excursion up to 40 mm.
Expected out-put coal size from pulveriser-70%
thru 200 mesh (75 microns) and 99% thru 50 mesh
(300 microns).
Not exceeding 85.0 dBA at a distance of 1.0m


Mill SPECs
Sizing curves
Classification-As per Speed
Types of Mills
Medium Speed High Speed Low Speed
17 to 20 Rev/min 30 to 100 Rev/min 500 to 1000 Rev/min
Tube and ball mill
Bowl Mill,
Ball & Race mill
Beater Mill,
Impact Mill
Crushing Impact
Attrition
shear
Fuel ash content
Fuel moisture
Velocity ( erosion ~ vel^2.3)
Minimum 15 m/sec.
Maximum 28 m/sec.
Pipe material
CS conforming to International Std with Ceramic lining
Minimum thickness - 8 mm in lined portion.
Minimum wear allowance - 4 mm.
Special erosion protection at bend
Ceramic - Min. 15 mm thick and min. 90% alumina
content
Guaranteed wear life of the ceramic lining
Minimum 25000 running hours.
Coal Pipes
Cook and Hurworth suggest that the source of deposits in long
horizontal pulverized-coal pipelines is the phenomenon of
"roping".
Roping is the segregation of pulverized coal and air with the coal
forming a band traveling along the bottom of the horizontal pipe.
This band of fuel is then slowing down due to wall friction.
It was found that as the air to coal ratio increased, the tendency
for deposition decreased and at values of air/coal > 3.5 and at
conveying velocities of 22-31m/sec, they could run their test rig
free of deposition.
Unfortunately air/fuel ratios required for grinding mill operation,
and for purposes of the primary mixture injected through the
burner, have much higher coal concentrations so that the use of
these lean concentrations is not practicable.

Coal settlement
Austenitic Manganese steel (AMS)
Low Carbon Chrome Moly Steel
(300 to 370BHN)
High Carbon Chrome Moly Steel
(325 to 380BHN)
Nihard Iron (550BHN)
High Chrome Irons (+600BHN) Cr Iron
Chrome Moly White Irons
(600 to 700BHN) WI
Materials
Controls / protections
Mill outlet temperature
PA flow
Coal flow
Vibration hihi
MDV closed
Lube oil pressure lo
Mill loading pressure lo/ hi
Mill DP hi
Mill to furnace DP hi
Seal air to mill Dp lo
Mill motor winding temperature hi
Bearing temperature hi


Factors affecting Milling performance

Grindability of coal
Moisture content
Fineness of the out put required
Size of the coal input
Mill wear
Safety
Explosion / fire proof-NFPA 8503
One kg coal in 20 cubic meters air-
explosive mixture
Co2 / steam/ inert gas dumping

Gravimetric, micro-processor based controls with
variable voltage frequency drive
Minimum 20% additional capacity over and above
the mill capacity to maintain 100% BMCR with
worst coal.
Feeder shall be designed for not less than PA fan
shut-off pressure, and shall withstand an explosion
pressure of 50 psi(g) as per the NFPA norms. It
shall withstand maximum ambient temperature of
50
O
C.
Gravimetric feeders
Constant speed simply supported Radial or Axial with Rotor blade
of Aerofoil design.
Two fans. Fan sizing shall be such that it takes care of the transient
condition when a stand by mill is changed to a working mill; each
fan capacity shall however, meet the requirement of minimum 60%
BMCR with worst coal. The best efficiency point shall be close to
the operating point at TMCR.
Inlet vane/outlet damper or blade pitch control (for axial fan)
Margins over theoretical calculated requirement at BMCR with
worst coal having highest moisture, considering 10% leakage in air
heater.
Air inlet parameters 50 Deg.C, 65% RH for fan sizing
Head : 30%
Capacity : 25%
PA FANS
Maintenance
Nomenclature
583 XRS/803 XRP Bowl Mills.
58,80 Stands for Bowl diameter in inches.
If the number is even then its Shallow Bowl Mill.
If the number is odd then its Deep Bowl Mill
3-Number of Rollers
X- Frequency of Power supply(50 cycles).
R- Raymond Name of the inventor
S- Suction type with Exhauster after mill
P- pressurized type with P.A. FAN before mill
The above mills have saucer type bowl (approx. 20 angle to horizontal).There are few
Bowl Mills initially supplied by CE in india. They have been discontinued.