Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 150

1

Elevator Training 2003


Content:
Elevator terminology
and components
Types of elevators
Safety features
Types of Emergencies
Rescue methods
2
Elevator Training 2003
Please note:
*Elevators installed at different time periods
conform to different requirements or codes.
*Elevator features and operation may vary from
one elevator to another.
*Get to know the elevators in the buildings that
you respond to during pre-fire inspections.
*Remember, all elevators are not built the same.
3
Elevator Training 2003
Counterweight
A tracked weight that is suspended from cables
and moves within its own set of guide rails along
the hoistway walls.
This counterweight will be equal to the dead
weight of the car plus about 40% of the rated
load.
4
Elevator Training 2003
Counter weight
5
Elevator Training 2003
Counter weight
6
Elevator Training 2003
Counter weight
7
Elevator Training 2003
Hoistway
The shaft that encompasses the elevator car.
Generally serving all floors of the building.
8
Elevator Training 2003
Hoistway
In high-rise buildings hoistways may be banked.
With specific hoistways serving only the lower
floors and others serving only middle or upper
floors while traveling in a blind hoistway until
reaching the floors that it serves. A blind hoistway
has no doors on the floors that it does not serve.
9
Elevator Training 2003
10
Elevator Training 2003
11
Elevator Training 2003
12
Elevator Training 2003
Elevator car
A heavy steel frame surrounding a cage of metal
and wood panels. The top of the car frame is
called the crosshead. Cabled elevators are
usually suspended from the crosshead.
The bottom of the frame is usually referred to as
the safety plank.
13
Elevator Training 2003
Cross head
14
Elevator Training 2003
Safety plank
15
Elevator Training 2003
Elevator car
The elevator car door travels through the
hoistway with the car.
A toe guard is present at the bottom of some
cars. This guard protects the passengers from
being exposed to the open hoistway under the
car if the doors are opened when it is not at the
landing. The guard is between 21 and 48
long.
16
Elevator Training 2003
Toe guard
17
Elevator Training 2003
Elevator door
These doors can sometimes opened on the inside
by hand, except where anti-egress devices are
installed.
This will also break the electrical interlock
which will cut the power to the car.
18
Elevator Training 2003
Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
19
Elevator Training 2003
Anti-egress lock
20
Elevator Training 2003
Hoistway doors
Horizontal operating hoistway doors are generally
hung from the top on rollers that run in a track,
with the bottom of the door running in a slot.
21
Elevator Training 2003
Interlock opening mechanism
22
Elevator Training 2003
Hoistway doors
Forcing these doors at the middle or at the bottom
will cause damage to the doors and their mounting
hardware. The doors can also be knocked out of
their track and fall into the hoistway.
23
Elevator Training 2003
Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
24
Elevator Training 2003
Hoistway door interlock
The hoistway door locking mechanism provides a
means to mechanically lock each hoistway door.
They are also interconnected electrically to
prevent operation of the elevator if any of the
elevators hoistway doors are open.
25
Elevator Training 2003
Hoistway door interlock
Hoistway door interlock
26
Elevator Training 2003
Interlock for freight elevator
27
Elevator Training 2003
Hoistway emergency door keys
Carried on trucks and the squad, permit the
unlocking of the hoistway door interlock.
28
Elevator Training 2003
29
Elevator Training 2003
Escutcheon tube
The keyhole on the upper portion of a hoistway
door that accepts a hoistway emergency door key
and permits unlocking of the hoistway door
locking mechanism.
These keyholes are usually located at the bottom
and top floors, but may also be on other selected
floors or all floors.
You may find a lock covering these keyholes on
some new elevator installations. Locate these keys
during pre-fires.
30
Elevator Training 2003
Escutcheon tube
31
Elevator Training 2003
32
Elevator Training 2003
Escutcheon tube
33
Elevator Training 2003
Car top operating station
Provided on some cars for operating the car from
the car top. To be used by the elevator technician
when servicing the car.
This station should only be operated under the
direct supervision of the elevator technician.
34
Elevator Training 2003
Operating station
35
Elevator Training 2003
Photo-electric and infrared sensors
A sensor between the hoistway and car doors that
detects objects in their path and prevents the
doors from closing.
Photo-electric eyes were problematic and are
being phased out.
36
Elevator Training 2003
Infra-red sensor
37
Elevator Training 2003
Roller guides
A set of three wheels that roll against the guide
rails.
Usually mounted to the safety plank and
crosshead. They keep the car in contact with the
guide rails and prevent sway.

38
Elevator Training 2003
Roller guides on
Cross head
39
Elevator Training 2003
Roller guides
on Safety plank
40
Elevator Training 2003
Safeties
Emergency braking mechanism that stops the car
by wedging into the guide rails when over
speeding has occurred.
It is activated by the speed governor sensing over
speeding of the elevator car.
41
Elevator Training 2003
Safeties
42
Elevator Training 2003
Safeties
Governor rope
43
Elevator Training 2003
Hoisting cables (or ropes)
Used on traction type elevators, usually attached
to the crosshead and extending up into the
machine room looping over the sheave on the
motor and then down to the counter weights.
Hoisting cable are generally 3 to 6 in number.
They are steel with a hemp core to keep them
pliable and lubricated.
44
Elevator Training 2003
Hoisting cables (or ropes)
These cables are usually 1/2or 5/8 in diameter.
The 1/2cables have a breaking strength of
14,500lbs and the 5/8 23,000lbs each.
However, at 900 degrees the wire steel rope
contains only about 13% of its original tensile
strength.
45
Elevator Training 2003
Nickel Babbitt
46
Elevator Training 2003
Hoisting cables
Wedge clamp
47
Elevator Training 2003
48
Elevator Training 2003
Counter weight
49
Elevator Training 2003
Sheave
50
Elevator Training 2003
Guide rails
Tracks in the form of a T that run the length of
the hoistway, that guide the elevator car.
Usually mounted to the sides of the hoistway, at
the middle of the elevator car.
51
Elevator Training 2003
Guide rail
Guide rail
52
Elevator Training 2003
Governor sheave
Provided to detect over speeding of the car.
Usually a cable is attached to the safeties on the
under side of the car, called the governor rope.
This rope runs down through a pulley at the
bottom of the shaft and back up to the machine
room and around the governor sheave.
When over-speeding is detected, the governor
grips the cable which applies the safeties that
wedge against the guide rails and stops the car.
53
Elevator Training 2003
Governor sheave
54
Elevator Training 2003
Governor rope
55
Elevator Training 2003
Governor rope
56
Elevator Training 2003
Car emergency exit
Usually located at the top of the elevator cars,
sometimes on the side, other times not present.
Top exits open from outside the car.
Side exits are extremely dangerous to use and are
no longer being installed. Existing side exits have
been disabled by being permanently bolted shut.
57
Elevator Training 2003
Top emergency exit
58
Elevator Training 2003
Top emergency exit
59
Elevator Training 2003
Machine room
For electric traction type
Usually located above the hoistway in a penthouse
or two floors above the highest floor it serves, but
may be in the basement if overhead space is
unavailable.
Generally containing hoisting machines,
controllers, generator, speed governor and the
main electrical disconnects to the elevators.
60
Elevator Training 2003
Elevator car number
61
Elevator Training 2003
Elevator car number
62
Elevator Training 2003
Elevator
car number
63
Elevator Training 2003
64
Elevator Training 2003
Fire phone
65
Elevator Training 2003
Intercom
66
Elevator Training 2003
Machine room
For hydraulic plunger type
Usually located in the basement or first floor, but
could be anywhere.
Generally containing the electric motors, pumps,
oil reservoirs, controllers and electrical disconnect
to the elevators.
67
Elevator Training 2003
68
Elevator Training 2003
69
Elevator Training 2003
70
Elevator Training 2003
Phase I
A mode of operation activated by a smoke
detector located in an elevator lobby, elevator
machine room, elevator hoistway or by a keyed
recall switch.
This activation returns all cars to the main egress
lobby or an alternated designated landing, opens
the elevator doors and removes the cars from
service.
If the car is on independent service, the elevator
will revert to Phase I recall in about 60 seconds.
71
Elevator Training 2003
Phase I
The keyed recall switch has an On, Off and
sometimes a Bypass position. The key is
removable in the On and Off positions only.
72
Elevator Training 2003
Phase I
On - Puts elevators into phase I recall.
Off - Puts elevator back into normal service.
Bypass Put elevator back into service regardless
of whether the smoke detectors are reset. The key
must be kept in switch when it is in the bypass
position.
73
Elevator Training 2003
Phase I
Note: The bypass feature is being replaced with
a reset feature for elevators installed or altered
under ASME A17.1a, 2002.
74
Elevator Training 2003
Phase I keyed switch
75
Elevator Training 2003
Phase I keyed switch in alarm room
76
Elevator Training 2003
77
Elevator Training 2003
Phase II
A mode of operation activated by the firefighters
independent service key switch inside the elevator.
This can only be activated when a phase I recall of
the elevators is in effect and with the elevator at
the lobby or designated floor with the doors open.
78
Elevator Training 2003
Phase II
The Phase II keyed switch in the car has an Off,
On and sometimes a Hold position.
The Hold position allows fire personnel to
remove the key and search a floor while the
elevator car is waiting with the doors open.
79
Elevator Training 2003
Phase II
Off - Puts elevator back into phase I control,
unless elevator is not in phase I, then the elevator
will stay at that location with doors open until it is
put into phase II again, returned to lobby and
then switched to the off position.
80
Elevator Training 2003
Phase II
On - Puts the elevator into firefighters
independent service.
81
Elevator Training 2003
82
Elevator Training 2003
83
Elevator Training 2003
84
Elevator Training 2003
Types of elevators
Hydraulic
Electric traction
Drum
85
Elevator Training 2003
Hydraulic
Found in two types:
Plunger type and Roped hydraulic
86
Elevator Training 2003
Hydraulic Roped hydraulic
This type is similar to the electric traction type
but uses a hydraulic machine for power.
87
Elevator Training 2003
Hydraulic Roped hydraulic
88
Elevator Training 2003
Hydraulic - Plunger type
This type is the most common and consists of an
elevator car mounted on top of a long hydraulic
piston. The piston is generally not telescopic, so
there must be a hole in the ground as long as the
distance the elevator travels.
89
Elevator Training 2003
Hydraulic Plunger type
90
Elevator Training 2003
Electric - Traction type
This is the most common type of elevator for high-
rise buildings. It consists of a driving sheave, over
which the hoisting ropes pass coming from the
elevator crosshead and going to the counter
weights.
Electric traction type elevators can be used in
buildings of any height.
91
Elevator Training 2003
Machine room -
- Counter weights
- Guide rails
- DC motor with sheave
- Speed governor
Hoistway doors -
Electric - Traction type
- Controller
92
Elevator Training 2003
Drum type
Drum Consists of a large drum in the machine
room around which hoisting cables and counter
weights ropes are wound. Not used in tall
buildings because of the large drum size that
would be necessary.
This is an old type of elevator and obsolete. The
machine room for this type of elevator could be
located on the first floor next to the shaft, in the
basement or overhead.
93
Elevator Training 2003
Drum type
Drum with hoisting cables
94
Elevator Training 2003
Safety features
Safeties a stopping mechanism for an over
speeding car.
Interlocks Cuts power to the car if this
electrical/mechanical interconnection is broken.
Anti-egress Allows car doors to open only 4
inches unless car is near landing.
Emergency stop switch The red switch inside
some cars that cuts off the power to the car except
for the lights, alarm and communication system.
95
Elevator Training 2003
Safety features
Seismic switch - A motion sensing device on some
elevators installations. If it is activated the
elevator will move away from the counter weights
to the next landing with its doors open and
inoperable.
This device overrides phase I and phase II
operation unless phase II operation is already in
effect.
96
Elevator Training 2003
Safety features
If this device has been activated it can mean that
an unsafe structural condition exists.
This device is located in the machine room.
97
Elevator Training 2003
98
Elevator Training 2003
Safety features
Seismic valve for hydraulic elevators - A valve
located in the pit close to the jack that is designed
to hold pressure if the hydraulic line is broken due
to seismic activity.
99
Elevator Training 2003
Seismic valve
100
Elevator Training 2003
Elevator emergencies
In many cases an elevator technician can correct a
problem faster than we can initiate a rescue.
Elevator technicians are on call 24hrs a day and
can usually respond within an hour.
When dispatched on a elevator emergency, verify
that an elevator technician has been notified.
101
Elevator Training 2003
Types of emergencies
Person trapped in elevator car
Power failure
Malfunction of control components
Activation of safety equipment
The 3 most common reasons:
102
Elevator Training 2003
- Power failure
If its going to be short term, its best not to
attempt a rescue. Explain the situation to the
occupant. Calm and reassure them and let them
know that they are not in danger and steps are
being taken to remove them safely.
If emergency power is available, it can be used.
103
Elevator Training 2003
- Power failure
Some newer elevators will return to the lobby one
at a time where the doors will open automatically.
104
Elevator Training 2003
- Power failure
If there is no emergency power, then shut off the
power to that elevator in the machine room.
This will prevent any unexpected movement of
traction type elevators when the power is restored.
105
Elevator Training 2003
- Malfunction of control components
Shut off the power to the elevator in the machine
room.
This will prevent any unexpected movement of the
car when the power is restored.
106
Elevator Training 2003
- Malfunction of control components
However, if you have a true emergency, try a
Phase I recall or turning the power off and on to
see if the system will restart correctly.
*Remember, do not restart an elevator without
consulting an elevator technician.
107
Elevator Training 2003
- Malfunction of control components
If this does not work leave the power to the
elevator off in the machine room.
Whenever you turn the power off to an elevator,
leave a member with a radio and fire phone (if
available), to guard the switch.
108
Elevator Training 2003
- Activation of safety equipment.
If one of the elevators safety devices has been
activated, it is often indicating a serious
malfunction in the hoistway or operating
machinery.
109
Elevator Training 2003
- Activation of safety equipment.
In this situation you should wait for an elevator
technician. Leave the power on to the elevator.
This will help the technician in determining the
problem.
However, if you have to perform a rescue, turn off
the main power to the elevator in the machine
room.
110
Elevator Training 2003
Let your presence be known to the trapped
occupant when you arrive. Calm and reassure the
them and let them know that there is no danger
and steps are being taken to remove them safely.
Remember:
111
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Person trapped in elevator car
Locate the stalled car by observing the floor
indicator in the lobby or voice contact with
occupant.
Ask them which direction they were going and
which floor they stopped at last.
112
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Try sending a member to the last floor that the car
came from to shake and physically make sure the
hoistway doors are fully closed and that the
interlock switch is making contact. All of the
hoistway doors must be closed for the car to
operate.
Person trapped in elevator car
113
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Sometimes its necessary to try this on several
floors to get the call to register.
If that does not work you can try calling the car to
the floor above or below its location in the
opposite direction it was traveling.
Person trapped in elevator car
114
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Person trapped in elevator car
*Remember, always shut off the power to the
elevator in the machine room before attempting
passenger removal and leave a member with a
radio (and fire phone if available) guarding the
switch.
115
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Person trapped in elevator car
*And after a rescue has been performed leave the
power off and a member onscene to inform the
elevator technician what measures were taken to
remove the occupant.
116
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
If these attempts to correct the problem fail, shut
off the main power to the elevator in the machine
room and station a member with a radio (and a
fire phone if available). Remember to maintain a
4 clearance around the switching equipment with
the radio.
Person trapped in elevator car
117
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
If the occupant has activated the emergency stop
switch, instruct them to turn it off. This will help
to calm them.
If the hoistway door has an escutcheon tube,
insert the appropriate key and release the
hoistway door interlock, and open the doors.
Person trapped in elevator car
118
Elevator Training 2003
119
Elevator Training 2003
120
Elevator Training 2003
Inside hoistway
121
Elevator Training 2003
122
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
If the hoistway door at this floor does not have an
escutcheon tube, you may have to go to the top
floor and work your way down.
Open the hoistway doors at the top floor, then lay
down and look down into the hoistway holding a
pike pole.
Person trapped in elevator car
123
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Position the end of the pike pole on the hoistway
door interlock mechanism on the floor below.
Open the interlock and have a member on that
floor open the hoistway doors.
Repeat this procedure until you have opened the
hoistway doors at the level of the stalled car.
Person trapped in elevator car
124
Elevator Training 2003
125
Elevator Training 2003
Interlock
126
Elevator Training 2003
127
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
*Remember, be sure to close or guard all hoistway
doors at each floor on the way down. Never leave
an open hoistway unattended.
Now you may be able to open the elevator doors
by hand by exerting 30 to 50 pounds of force,
except where anti-egress devices are installed.
Person trapped in elevator car
128
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
On newer installations, if the car is stalled within
18 of the landing zone, usually the hoistway
doors will open if the car doors open. If not, the
car doors will only open 4 due to the anti-egress
mechanism.
Person trapped in elevator car
129
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
If this isnt possible, you may have to force the
doors with a port-a-power or rabbit tool toward
the top of the doors.
In this case you may be able to release the
mechanism from the outside.
Person trapped in elevator car
130
Elevator Training 2003
Anti-egress lock
131
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
If you use a rabbit tool to force the hoistway or
elevator doors and anti-egress is present, you may
need to use cribbing. Anti-egress allows the doors
to open 4, while the spreading capability of the
rabbit tool is only 3 1/2.
Person trapped in elevator car
132
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent
car.
-Bring the adjacent car to the floor nearest the
stalled car and open its doors.
133
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent
car.
-Set the main power switch in the machine room
for both cars to the off position.
134
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent
car.
-Extend a pike pole through the opening between
the car and hoistway doors to the interlock roller
of the stalled car.
-Extend a pike pole through the opening between
the car and hoistway doors to the interlock roller
of the stalled car.
135
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent
car.
-Activate the interlock mechanism while a
member opens the hoistway doors.
-Rescuer enter elevator and remove one occupant
at a time.
136
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent
car.
*Guard any opening to the hoistway that exists.
*Be careful not to extend the pike pole into the
hoistway of an elevator still in service.
137
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Car more than 3 from landing.
*It is inadvisable to remove passengers through
the elevator doors if it is more than 3 above the
landing, because of the possible danger of falling
into the hoistway.
138
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Car more than 3 from landing.
*It is also inadvisable to remove passengers
through the elevator doors if the car is more than
3 below the landing because of the limited size of
the access opening for rescue.
139
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
*Do not use top emergency exits in unenclosed
hoistways. Also, some elevators do not have these
exits.
*The preferred method is to have an elevator
technician move the car to a landing level.
140
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
-Set the main power switch in the machine room
to off and station a member to guard the switch
with a radio (and a fire phone if available).
-If there are elevators in adjoining shafts, set their
power switches to off also.
*The following should only be performed if a real
emergency exists.
141
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
-Open the hoistway doors at the nearest landing
level above the stalled car. The opening of the
hoistway doors can be accomplished as described
previously.
-A ladder with non-skid feet should be lowered
and securely positioned to the car top. The ladder
should be long enough to have at least 3 rungs
above the landing.
142
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
-One member of the rescue team wearing a safety
belt and properly tied off to a secure line descends
to the top of the car.
143
Elevator Training 2003
Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
144
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
-A second ladder should be lowered through the
emergency top exit, long enough to extend at least
3 rungs above the car top.
-A second rescuer should descend to the car top
wearing a safety belt and a secured line.
145
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
-The second rescuer should carry a second safety
belt for the victim.
-One rescuer should enter the stalled car and set
the emergency stop switch to off (if available),
while the other stays on the car top.
146
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
-A third member should be at the landing used to
gain access.
-The occupants should then be assisted up the
ladder from the car wearing the safety belt, one at
a time.
147
Elevator Training 2003
Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
148
Elevator Training 2003
Rescue methods
Removal of occupants through the top emergency
exit.
-Remember, do not restore power to the stalled
car. Have a member stand by to inform the
elevator technician the measures that were taken
to perform the rescue.
149
Elevator Training 2003
Elevators
The information covered in this presentation
are some, but not all of the methods of elevator
rescue. For more in-depth information on
elevator function and methods of elevator
rescue, refer to:
1. PF&R Training Bulletin #19, Elevators and Elevator
Emergencies.
2. ASME A17.4, Guide for Emergency Personnel.
3. The Chief Elevator Inspector, Oregon Dept. of
Consumer and Business Services.


150
Elevator Training 2003
Thank you
DRILL CODE: 20-07.ELEV

Оценить