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FAST PYROLYSIS
BIO-OIL
Oscar Abrica
Jie Fu
Shimme Sharma
Hardik Savani
Outline
Introduction
Biomass Approaches
Pyrolysis
Bio-Oil
Selection Raw Material, Reactor and Land
Key Factors Fast Pyrolysis
Fast Pyrolysis Process
Cost
Applications and Advantages
Results and Conclusion
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Need for Bio-refinery
Present situation:
- Depletion of fossil fuel
- Increasing demand of energy
- Green house effect
- Need for a renewable energy
source
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energy production
Renewable energy
86-90%
Worldwide Energy production:
10-14%
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Biomass
Any biological matter that can be used
to produce energy.
Composed of mainly celluloses,
hemicelluloses, lignin and some minor
amount of other organics
Most common renewable energy source
Wood, agriculture waste, forest
residue, municipal waste, etc.

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Approaches
Biochemical
- Fermentation
- Anaerobic digestion
Thermochemical
- Combustion
- Gasification
- pyrolysis
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Pyrolysis
Heating of biomass in the absence of O
2
Require very high temperature (400-700
o
C)
Reactions involve:
- Depolymerisation
- Hydrolysis
- Oxidation
- Dehydration
- Decarboxylation
3 main products:
- Solid phase(Charcoal)
- Non-condensable gases
- Condensable vapour(Pyrolysis-oil)


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Conventional
or
Slow pyrolysis
Fast or
Flash
Pyrolysis
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Bio-oil
Dark brownish viscous organic liquid
Derived from organic compound(Biomass)
Composed of complex oxygenated
compounds
Water soluble (derived from hemicellulose and
cellulose)
Water insoluble (derived from lignin)
Resemblance to fossil fuel
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Why Fast pyrolysis?
Produces high liquid yield and low solid
yield

Short residence time

Major product is in liquid form
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Why cyclone reactor?
Excellent heat transfer efficiency
Very short residence time
Simultaneous separation of solid by-products &
unreacted particles from gaseous products
Essential reactions of pyrolysis carried out in
the same vessel:
- Fast heating
- Chemical decomposition
- Efficient friction
- Further reactions of the primary products
- Cleaning of the evolved gas


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Raw material- Why saw dust?
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Key Parts Fast Pyrolysis Process
High Temperature
Short residence time
Anaerobic
Fast Cooling


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High Temperatura inside reactor
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Key Parts Fast Pyrolysis Process
High Temperature
Short residence time
Anaerobic
Fast Cooling


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Short Residence Time
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Key Parts Fast Pyrolysis Process
High Temperature
Short residence time
Anaerobic
Fast Cooling


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Anaerobic
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Key Parts Fast Pyrolysis Process
High Temperature
Short residence time
Anaerobic
Fast Cooling


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Fast Cooling
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Fast Pyrolysis Procces
Raw Material Pre-treatment
Fast Pyrolysis
Condensation
Process Integration (syngas, charcoal,
fluegas, steam)
Storage



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Flow-Sheet
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Flow-Sheet
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Flow-Sheet

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Flow-Sheet

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Flow-Sheet
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Mass balance
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Mass input
Sawdust 100 tons
N2 346.587 kg
Air 895.104 kg

Mass output
Bio-oil 70 tons
Flue gas 16.242 tons (Which can be used to drive
a gas turbine and then dry sawdust)

Mass consumed within system
Syngas 15 tons
Charcoal 10 tons
Volume of cyclone reactor: V=67m
Height3.5m; Diameter: 5m
Transportation facility & cost
Based on geographical location &
condition of road available- trucks are
in size of 17 tons capacity.

Average travelling cost is $0.45 per
kilometre

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PYROLYSIS Bio-Oil Plan Cost
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Applications

Valuable chemicals- water solubility

Whole product as chemical- presence of most
abundant functional groups

Bio-fertilizer

Insecticides and fungicides
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Contd...
Wood preservative

To improve uneven skin like stretch
mark, skin burn, dried skin etc.

As fuel with diesel with aid of
surfactants

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Advantages
High flash point- less flammable
Exhaust fumes are less toxic
Biologically degradable and less
damaging
Application in energy power production
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Challenges
Half heating value than the petroleum fuel
Costly
Raw material availability
Inconsistent quality
Unstable- required upgrading techniques
like hydrotreatment
Engine modification required
Unfamiliar product for consumer
Consideration of environmental health &
safety

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Upgrading of Bio-oil
Difficult for transportation & storage
- Highly oxygenated with low octane
number
Solution- Hydrodeoxygenation
Produce highly valuable hydrocarbon
composed bio-oil
Formation of saturated C-C bond & water in
reaction- increase heating value
Complicated & expensive

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Marketing
Chemical industries
Power generating industries
Cosmetic industries
Pharmaceutical industries
Fertilizer making industries
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Result & Conclusion
70 tons of bio-oil from 100 tons of
sawdust
To achieve high efficient process:
- Strict anaerobic condition required
in cyclone reactor
- High & fast heat to saw dust
- Rapid condensing of bio-oil vapour
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Thank You





Gracias
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