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Technical Reports

Attributes of a good Technical Report

1. Brief and Accurate
2. Clear and Logical

3. Relevant and
4. Organized

5. Rational

facts and figures
Indicate where ideas
are leading
No irrelevant or
misleading ideas
presentation of facts
Specific analysis and

Attributes of a good Technical Report
6. Comprehensible
7. All inclusive
8. Highly objective
9. Written in good
10. Appropriate layout
and style
11. Neat and Attractive
in appearance

Covers details
Answer who, when, where,
what, why and how
no prejudices,
personal opinions

Types of Technical Reports
1. Presentation
2. Length
3. Nature
4. Purpose

5. Time Duration
Oral and Written
Short and Long
Informal and
Informational and
and Special Reports
Nature of Technical Reports
Informal Reports
business reports
more frequent
same function as
formal reports
brief and no more
than five pages

Formal Reports
investigation of a
Detailed and
Fixed format

Purpose of Technical Reports
Presents facts,
situations or problems
required for decision-
Records events such
as conferences,
client/supplier details
Analytical Reports
Presents analysis of
Evaluate, make
recommendations, and
/Feasibility/ Market
Search reports
Analytical Reports
Recommendation Reports
Analyze a problem or situation
Present possible solutions
Provide recommendations
Conduct on short investigations
Focus on goods, machinery requirements
Bring an important issue in the limelight

Analytical Reports
Feasibility Reports
Determine the difficulty in carrying out a plan
Develop criteria for assessing solutions
Show the best solutions
Involve testing demographics
Submit to authorities who approve permit

Analytical Reports
Market Search
Contain guidelines for promoters of a new
product or policy
Organized effort to gather information about
markets or customers

Key Elements to Include in a Report
I. Front-End Materials
Transmittal document
Executive summary
Title Page and Table of Contents
II. Body of the Report
III. Back-End Materials

Front-End Materials
1. Transmittal document
Write directly to the reader
Use pronouns such as we or you
Set the tone for the report
For internal use: memo
For client/supplier: letter
Focus on purpose of report and building

Front-End Materials
2. Executive Summary
window into the body of the report
for those involved in decision-making and
policy-setting activities
-1 page long
last section you write in a report
Contains key conclusions and
Optional: Project description or methodology

Front-End Materials
3. Title and Table of Contents
Report Title (centered, all caps)
Presented To (name, position, organization)
Presented By
Date (date of delivery/submission)

Body of the Report
I. Introduction
A. Purpose
Reason for report
Begin with phrases like: to inform, to identify, to
Example: This report aims to analyze various
networking options and to recommend a system
that will best meet current and future needs of

B. Problem
Context and Project Requirements
C. Scope and Limitation
Areas covered and those not considered in the

II. Background
A. Theory
Anchor report on theory/principle (justify)
B. Research
Review of related literature/previous research

III. Test and Evaluation
A. Apparatus
Device used to accomplish the task
B. Procedure
Steps used to accomplish the task

IV. Findings
A. Data
Present the results of the test and evaluation
direct observation
changes in results based on variables
Discuss differences between theory and results
B. Interpretation
Discuss assumptions and idealizations
Focus on your contribution to this project

V. Conclusion
A. Assessment
Recap problem, approach, and results
State conclusions based on interpretations
State implication of results to your field
B. Recommendations
Suggestions on how the project can be improved
Recommendations for further work

Back-End Materials
Supplement the body of the report
Labeled using letters of the alphabet
List of References
Moden Language Association of America (MLA)
American Psychological Association (APA)
Project Ideas
Choose a scientific or technical subject
Identify problems/issued related with subject
Recommend a product/technology/program
Comparative data on three to four products in
the same category then recommend one
Recommend a model/process/service of
doing things
Address a problem in a school, workplace or
community setting
Midterm Coverage: Written Exam
Characteristics of Technical Reports
Passive to Active
Types of Audiences
Levels of Decision-Making
Case Studies
Technical Reports
Midterm Coverage: Analytical Report
Oral Presentation
3-5 minutes
can use ppt
Written Report
10 pages
this includes front-end materials, body of the
report (4-5pages), back-end materials

End of Discussion