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Wind Energy in Agriculture

Workshop on Energy in Agriculture, (September 15-16,

National Academy of Agricultural Sciences
New Delhi

Nayudamma Centre for Development Alternatives

Nellore,Andhra Pradesh India

Wind turbine cooperatives - Origin from Denmark
To encourage investment in wind power, families were
offered a tax exemption for generating their own
electricity within their own or an adjoining commune.
While this could involve purchasing a turbine outright,
more often families purchased shares in wind turbine
cooperatives which in turn invested in community wind
turbines. By 1996 there were around 2,100 such
cooperatives in the country. Opinion polls show that
this direct involvement has helped the popularity of
wind turbines, with some 86% of Danes supporting
wind energy when compared with existing fuel sources.

The role of wind turbine cooperatives is not limited to
single turbines. The Middelgrunden offshore wind farm
with 20 turbines the world's largest offshore farm at
the time it was built in 2000 is 50% owned by the
10,000 investors in the Middelgrunden Wind Turbine
Cooperative, and 50% by the municipal utility company.
By 2001 over 100,000 families belonged to wind
turbine cooperatives, which had installed 86% of all the
wind turbines in Denmark. By 2004 over 150,000 were
either members or owned turbines, and about 5,500
turbines had been installed, although with greater
private sector involvement the proportion owned by
cooperatives had fallen to 75%.The cooperative model
has also spread to Germany and the Netherlands.

Financially, community-based wind projects are
structured much differently than traditional wind
farms. In the traditional model, the company that
builds and manages a wind farm retains sole ownership
of the development. The owners of the land on which
the wind turbines were built usually have no stake in
development, and are instead compensated through
lease payments or by royalty-based contracts.
The more people that become involved through
community wind power, the more democratic the
energy supply system becomes. Energy sellers make a
profit, landowners receive leasing fees, communities
get improved infrastructure, local people get jobs,
governments receive taxes, and consumers receive
electricity at competitive prices.
Community wind farms

The Hepburn Wind Project is a wind farm at Leonards
Hill near Daylesford, Victoria, north-west of Melbourne,
Victoria. It comprises two 2MW wind turbines which
produce enough power for 2,300 households.
This is the first Australian community-owned wind
farm. The initiative has emerged because the
community felt that the state and federal governments
were not doing enough to address climate change.
Community wind power is in its infancy in Canada but
there are reasons for optimism. One such reason is the
launch of a new Feed-in Tariff (FIT) program in the
Province of Ontario . A number of community wind
projects are in development in Ontario but the first
project that is likely to obtain a FIT contract and
connect to the grid is the Pukwis Community Wind
Park. Pukwis will be unique in that it is a joint
Aboriginal/Community wind project that will be
majority-owned by the Chippewas of Georgina Island
First Nation, with a local renewable energy co-operative
(the Pukwis Energy Co-operative) owning the
remainder of the project.
In Germany, hundreds of thousands of people have
invested in citizens' wind farms across the country and
thousands of small and medium sized enterprises are
running successful businesses in a new sector that in
2008 employed 90,000 people and generated 8 percent
of Germany's electricity. Wind power has gained very
high social acceptance in Germany, with the
development of community wind farms playing a major
The Netherlands
Sixty-three farmers in De Zuidlob, the southern part of the
municipality of Zeewolde, have entered into a cooperative
agreement that aims to develop a wind farm of at least 108
MW. The project will include the installation of three phases
of 12 wind turbines with capacities of 3 to 4.5 MW each. The
aim is to put the wind farm into service in 2012.
The Netherlands has an active community of wind
cooperatives. They build and operate wind parks in all regions
of the Netherlands. This started in the 1980s with the first
Lagerweij turbines. Back then, these turbines could be
financed by the members of the cooperatives. Today, the
cooperatives build larger wind parks, but not as large as
commercial parties do. Some still operate self-sufficiently,
others partner with larger commercial wind park developers.
United Kingdom
As of 2012, there are 43 communities who are in the
process of or already producing renewable energy
through co-operative structures in the UK. They are set
up and run by everyday people, mostly local residents,
who are investing their time and money and together
installing large wind turbines, solar panels, or hydro-
electric power for their local communities.
United States
Most of the wind farms in the United States are
commercially owned. As of 2011, Iowa has just one
community owned wind farm, that is Hardin Hilltop
near Jefferson, Iowa.
National Wind is a large-scale community wind project
developer, with thirteen families of projects in
development or operation. These projects have an
aggregate capacity of over 4,000 MW. The vision of the
company is to revitalize rural economies by promoting
investment in domestic renewable energy resources.
National Wind creates shared ownership with
communities and allows them participation in decisions
which are made.
A RENEWABLE ENERGY FUND can be created by
Government with contributions from Individuals paying
Income Tax to get tax Exemption under Section 80 C.

This fund will invest in Community Wind Farms(Wind
Farm Co-operatives).

This way Wind and other Renewables will become a
mass movement.

The TvindMill is one of the biggest windmills in the
world (54 m). It is an impressive building, constructed
by the pupils of the school with the advice of experts.

The construction of the mill started in 1975, and today
the mill supplies the many school-buildings with
Tvind Mllen, Skorkrvej 8, Tvind, 6990 Ulfborg ,
Tvindkraft was created to show the way forward for wind
energy - and to show the way out for nuclear power. But the
most important thing was probably that the Teacher Group
showed that it was possible for normal people, without any
significant scientific education, to build a large wind power
plant. With their determination, their drive, their elbow
grease and common sense, cooperation and support, where
help was to be found, this unparalleled structure was created
- despite comments like: "You are doing wind power a
disservice by trying to build a windmill", and despite the fact
that no authority wanted to give any financial assistance to
the windmill construction, although it clearly followed the
recommendations of the Akademiet for Teknisk Videnskaber
[Academy for Technical Sciences] to promote the
development of wind energy in Denmark, with both practical
experiments as well as research projects.
The Tvind windmill, "Tvindkraft" was
created during the years 1975-78
It is a tourist attraction. There is a lift which takes
people to the top. I visited the Tvindmill 3 times when
I was in Denmark.

Tvindmill is a Downwind Turbine

Upwind Vs Downwind Turbines:

An Upwind turbine faces into the wind with the
turbine blades in front of the Nacelle while a
Downwind turbine has blades to the rear of the
Nacelle and faces away from the wind. Up-wind
turbines are by far and away the most common, but
down-wind turbines (usually two-bladed) are also
used in certain situations.
1980 the year of birth of a huge
machine, once the largest
windenergy converter of the world,
called GROWIAN. This pilot plant
started with experiments in 1983.
Erection site was the "Kaiser-
Wilhelm-Koog" a very windy and
flat North Sea coast region, nearby
Marne. The machine was
dismantled scheduled in 1987,
because of finishing the
NASA Mod 1 wind turbine
1979_02503.jpg 2000 KW

Offshore wind power :
Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in
bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind
speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore
wind powers contribution in terms of electricity supplied is
higher. However, offshore wind farms are relatively expensive.
Power P = 0.5 p A V
.. .. (1)
Where P = Power,p density of air,V=speed of the wind and A is
the area of the intercepted airstream(equal to the swept by the
In standard conditions(sea level, temperature 15 degrees
Celsius) the density of the air is 1.225 kg/m
. So the amount of
Power intercepted by each square rotor is:
P=0.612 V
Watts (2)
For Example,if the wind speed is 6 m/s(a moderate breeze) the
power intercepted per square meter is 0.612 X 6
= 132 W; but
if the speed rises to 24 m/s(a severe gale) the power becomes
0.612 X 24
= 8460 W. This massive increase is due to cubic
relationship between wind speed and power by equation (2).
Here the wordintercepted rather than captured is used
because the above figures relate to the power in the wind, not
the amount actually extracted by a turbine rotor. Large modern
turbines typically capture up of about 50% of the wind power
presented to them.
Betz's law is a theory about the maximum possible energy to be
derived from a wind turbine developed in 1919 by the German
physicist Albert Betz. According to Betz's law, no turbine can
capture more than 59.3 percent of the kinetic energy in wind.
The ideal or maximum theoretical efficiency n max (also called
power coefficient) of a wind turbine is the ratio of maximum
power obtained from the wind to the total power available in the
wind. The factor 0.593 is known as Betz's coefficient. It is the
maximum fraction of the power in a wind stream that can be
Economics and benefits
Offshore wind power can help to reduce energy imports, reduce
air pollution and greenhouse gases (by displacing fossil-fuel
power generation), meet renewable electricity standards, and
create jobs and local business opportunities. However, according
to the US Energy Information Agency, offshore wind power is the
most expensive energy generating technology being considered
for large scale deployment". The advantage is that the wind is
much stronger off the coasts, and unlike wind over the
continent, offshore breezes can be strong in the afternoon,
matching the time when people are using the most electricity.
Offshore turbines can also be "located close to the power-
hungry populations along the coasts, eliminating the need for
new overland transmission lines".
Most entities and individuals active in offshore wind power
believe that prices of electricity will grow significantly from 2009,
as global efforts to reduce carbon emissions come into effect.
BTM expects cost per kWh to fall from 2014, and that the
resource will always be more than adequate in the three areas
Europe, United States and China.
The current state of offshore wind power presents economic
challenges significantly greater than onshore systems - prices can
be in the range of 2.5-3.0 million Euro/MW. The turbine
represents just one third to one half of costs in offshore projects
today, the rest comes from infrastructure, maintenance, and
oversight. Larger turbines with increased energy capture make
more economic sense due to the extra infrastructure in offshore
systems. Additionally, there are currently no rigorous simulation
models of external effects on offshore wind farms, such as
boundary layer stability effects and wake effects. This causes
difficulties in predicting performance accurately, a critical
shortcoming in financing billion-dollar offshore facilities. A report
from a coalition of researchers from universities, industry, and
government, lays out several things needed in order to bring the
costs down and make offshore wind more economically viable:
Improving wind performance models, including how design
conditions and the wind resource are influenced by the presence
of other wind farms.

Reducing the weight of turbine materials

Eliminating problematic gearboxes

Turbine load-mitigation controls and strategies

Turbine and rotor designs to minimize hurricane and typhoon

Economic modeling and optimization of costs of the overall wind
farm system, including installation, operations, and maintenance

Service methodologies, remote monitoring, and diagnostics.
In 2011, a Danish energy company claimed that offshore wind
turbines are not yet competitive with fossil fuels, but estimates
that they will be in 15 years. Until then, state funding and
pension funds will be needed.
In Belfast, the harbour industry is being redeveloped as a hub for
offshore windfarm construction, at a cost of about 50m. The
work will create 150 jobs in construction, as well as requiring
about 1m tonnes of stone from local quarries, which will create
hundreds more jobs. "It is the first dedicated harbour upgrade
for offshore wind".
Top 25 operational offshore wind
Wind farm
Country Coordinates
& model
Walney (phases 1&2) 367.2 United Kingdom 540238N 33119W
102 Siemens
2011 (phase 1)
2012 (phase 2)
Thanet 300 United Kingdom 5126N 0138E
100 Vestas
Horns Rev II 209 Denmark 553600N 73524E
91 Siemens
Rdsand II 207 Denmark 54330N 114236E
90 Siemens
and Inner Dowsing
194 United Kingdom 530739N 002610E
54 Siemens
List of the top 25 offshore wind farms that are currently operational, rated by nameplate capacity. In the
case of a tied bottom place in the table, the wind farm with the earliest commissioning date is used.
Robin Rigg
(Solway Firth)
180 United Kingdom 5445N 343W
60 Vestas
Gunfleet Sands 172 United Kingdom 514316N 11731E
48 Siemens
Nysted (Rdsand I) 166 Denmark 54330N 114236E
72 Siemens
Bligh Bank (Belwind) 165 Belgium 513936N 2480E
55 Vestas
Horns Rev I 160 Denmark 553147N 75422E
80 Vestas
Ormonde 150 United Kingdom 546N 324W 30 REpower 5M 2012
Longyuan Rudong Intertidal 131.3 China
21 Siemens 2.3-93;
2 3MW
2 2.5MW
6 2MW
6 1.5MW Sinovel
Princess Amalia 120 Netherlands 523524N 41312E
60 Vestas
Lillgrund 110 Sweden 5531N 1247E
48 Siemens
Egmond aan Zee 108 Netherlands
36 Vestas
Donghai Bridge 102 China 304612N 1215938E
34 Sinovel
Kentish Flats 90 United Kingdom 512736N 1524E
30 Vestas
Barrow 90 United Kingdom 5359N 317W
30 Vestas
Burbo Bank 90 United Kingdom 5329N 0310W
25 Siemens
Rhyl Flats 90 United Kingdom 5322N 0339W
25 Siemens
North Hoyle 60 United Kingdom 5326N 324W
30 Vestas
Scroby Sands 60 United Kingdom 523856N 14725E
30 Vestas
Alpha Ventus 60 Germany 541N 636E
6 REpower 5M,
Wind M5000-5M
Baltic 1 48 Germany 543636N 12390E
21 Siemens
Middelgrunden 40 Denmark 554127N 124013E
20 Bonus
(Siemens) 2MW
Source: Wikipedia
Top 10 under construction

This is a list of the 10 largest offshore wind farms currently under construction
Wind farm
Country Coordinates
& model
London Array
(Phase I)
630 United Kingdom 513838N 013313E
175 Siemens
Greater Gabbard 504 United Kingdom 515248N 15624E
140 Siemens
Trianel Borkum
West II
400 Germany
80 Areva Multibrid
2012 (Phase 1)
2015 (Phase 2)
BARD Offshore 1 400 Germany 5422N 559E 80 BARD 5.0 2012
Anholt 400 Denmark
111 Siemens
Sheringham Shoal 315 United Kingdom 537N 18E
88 Siemens
Lincs 270 United Kingdom 531100N 002900E 75 x 3.6MW 2012
Thorntonbank Phase 2 147.6 Belgium 24 x REpower 6M 2013
Teesside 62 United Kingdom 5439N 14W 27 x Siemens 2.3MW 2012
Datang Laizhou III 49.5 China 33 x 1.5 MW ?
Source: Wikipedia
Just for comparison onshore wind farms and power production.
Top 10 countries by nameplate wind power capacity
(2011 year-end)
Country Wind power capacity
(MW) provisional % world total
( Provisional)

(Source: Global Wind Statistics 2011,Global Wind Energy Council 7-2-2012)
China 62,733 26.3
United States 46,919 19.7
Germany 29,060 12.2
Spain 21,674 9.1
India 16,084 6.7
France 6,800 2.8
Italy 6,747 2.8
United Kingdom 6,540 2.7
Canada 5,265 2.2
Portugal 4,083 1.7
(rest of world) (32,446) -13.8
World Total 238,351 MW 100%
United States 95.2 27.6
China 55.5 15.9
Spain 43.7 12.7
Germany 36.5 10.6
India 20.6 6
United Kingdom 10.2 3
France 9.7 2.8
Portugal 9.1 2.6
Italy 8.4 2.5
Canada 8.0 2.3
(rest of world) (48.5) 14.1
World total 344.8 TWh 100%
Top 10 countries
by wind power electricity production
(2010 totals) Country Wind power production (TWh)
% world total
(Source: Electricity Production From Wind Sources: Main
Wind Power Producing Countries 2010)
Efforts in India on Offshore Wind Farms


Govt plans offshore facility to tap wind energy

TNN Jan 6, 2012, 06.07AM IST
CHENNAI: The Centre for Wind Energy Technology (CWET) plans to conduct a
feasibility study in Dhanushkodi near Rameswaram to set up offshore
windmills, following problems of land acquisition for onshore wind power
Sources said wind velocity at 100 metres from ground level would be
measured and data collected. "It will be set up in a lagoon. If there is enough
wind flow, we will set up a wind farm and start power generation," said a
CWET source.
Obviosly Offshore wind systems are costlier than their onshore counterparts,
both in capital and operating costs. A summary of indicative cost data
provided below is insightful.
Investment of about $1.5 million per MW
Levelized cost of 6-7 cents per kWh
O&M 1-3% of capital costs
May be built in smaller units
Investment of $2.3 million per MW
Levelized cost of about 10-11 cents per kWh
Higher O&M 40$ per kW and 0.7 cents per kWh variable
Large turbines and farms required
In spite of the higher costs and the uncertainties involved in
offshore wind, research in this sector has been significant, and
the main reason is the potential offered by offshore wind
turbines, especially in lands close to water
Gaviotas Small Water Pumping
Gaviotas Tropical Windmill, Double Action Pump -
The conventional Windmill to draw water from wells has been
built for over a hundred years.
Due to its old design it weighs more than half a ton, and
requires a strong wind to work.
Unfortunately, our countries are poor in tropical wind;
however, there are very heavy storms
at very short periods.

Gaviotas Small Water Pumping
Small Scale Wind Battery Chargers
from China
Conclusions and Prognosis

Offshore wind farms will be future energy option to supplement
conventional power. With extensive research on large size wind
turbines and installation techniques of offshore wind turbines,
the cost of power generation through offshore wind farms is
expected to come down to be competitive with conventional
power. USA, China, South Korea, Taiwan, France and Japan have
ambitious plans to go in for offshore wind farms on a massive
It is hoped MNRE will initiate at least a Pilot project of Offshore
Wind Farm in India. All modern techniques of wind assessment
have to be undertaken which will identify prospective locations
to set up offshore wind farms in the country.

Of all the forces of nature, I should think the wind contains the largest
amount of motive powerthat is, power to move things. Take any
given space of the earth's surface for instance, Illinois; and all the
power exerted by all the men, and beasts, and running-water, and
steam, over and upon it, shall not equal the one hundredth part of
what is exerted by the blowing of the wind over and upon the same
space. And yet it has not, so far in the world's history, become
proportionably valuable as a motive power. It is applied extensively,
and advantageously, to sail-vessels in navigation. Add to this a few
windmills, and pumps, and you have about all. ... As yet, the wind is an
untamed, and unharnessed force; and quite possibly one of the
greatest discoveries hereafter to be made, will be the taming, and
harnessing of it.
Abraham Lincoln

Lecture 'Discoveries and Inventions', (1860) in Discoveries and
Inventions (1915).
When the wind of change blows some build walls
others build windmills - Chinese proverb
Put the WIND to WORK: To get inexhaustible,
pollution-free energy which cannot be misused.
- Dr. A. Jagadeesh
Thank You