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Solution Concentration

Which Formula
Should I Use?
Solution Concentrations
Used in Lab

Mass/Volume: g/L or mg/ml
Percent: %
Molar: M, mM or M
Mass/Volume Concentration
Expressed as a specific mass
per specific volume
Mass may be g, mg, g, etc
Volume may be to be L, ml, l, etc
Examples: X g OR X mg OR Xg OR Xg
L ml l ml
Mass/Volume Concentration
Tips
Formula weight does not matter!
Set up as a fraction
Simplify the fraction until the denominator is
equal to 1
Used to re-hydrate packaged vials and make
media

Percent Solutions
X% (w/v) solution = X grams solute
100 ml solution
OR

X% (v/v) solution = X ml solute
100 ml solution
Percent Solutions Tips

Formula weight does not matter!
Solid solute indicates w/v
Liquid solute indicates v/v
Gel concentrations expressed this way
Look for %
Molar Solutions
g = M FW L
g = grams of solute to be weighed out
M = molarity of the desired solution
FW = formula weight of the solute
L = volume of desired solution
expressed in liters

Molar Solutions Tips
Formula weight does matter
Solute is dry
Volume must be expressed in liters
Usually solving for g
Add any water(s) of hydration to the FW of the
solute
Look for M or mM or M
Sometimes you need to dilute a stock
solution in order to make a working
solution
Diluting Solutions
Diluting Concentrated
Solutions
C1V1 = C2V2
C1 = concentration of stock solution
V1 = volume of stock solution needed
C2 = desired concentration of working solution
V2 = desired volume of working solution
Diluting Solutions Tips
Stock buffers diluted this way
Solute is liquid
Volume usually expressed in ml
Usually solving for V1
Look for X
Now that you know how to use the formulas,
lets practice knowing which formula to use.
The following slides will give you practice
problems for making solutions in the lab. Read
each problem, select which formula you need
to apply, and see if you can solve the problem.
Practice!
Directions
Each practice problem will give you four
formula choices. Choose the formula that
applies to the problem. Then solve the
problem yourself.
On each CORRECT!! slide, click to see the
problem set-up, then click again for the
solution so you can check your answer.
Then click the blue button to go to the next
problem.
Practice #1
You need to make 1L
of LB/Amp media.
The concentration of
Amp in the media
should be 0.1 mg/ml.
How much Amp
powder do you need
to weight out?
g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume
choose formula:
Practice #2
We purchase PBS
as a 20X stock
solution. How would
you make 150 ml of
1X PBS?

g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume


choose formula:
Practice #3
Binding Buffer is 4M
Ammonium Sulfate
[(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
].


How would you make
300 ml of
this solution?

g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume


choose formula:
Practice #4
A 30 mg vial of
Ampicillin is
rehydrated with
3 ml of sterile distilled
water. What is the
concentration of
ampicillin in this
solution?


g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume

choose formula:
Practice #5
Methylene Blue is
used to stain DNA.
How would you make
250 ml of a 0.5%
solution of Methylene
Blue using powdered
Methylene Blue?

g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume

choose formula:
Practice #6
Your protocol calls
for a 30 ml, 0.8%
DNA gel. How much
agarose powder do
you need?
g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume

choose formula:
Practice #7
You need 10 mM
EDTA solution to
dilute your DNA.
How would you make
50 ml of
10 mM EDTA?
g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume

choose formula:
Practice #8
We have 50X TAE.
You need 1X TAE to
run your gel. How
would you make 400
ml of 1X TAE?
g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume

choose formula:
Practice #9
How would you
prepare 250ml of a
40mM solution of
Magnesium Chloride
[MgCl
2
6H
2
O]?
g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume

choose formula:
Practice #10
We have 2M glucose
solution. How would
you make 100 ml of
2mM glucose
solution?
g = M FW L

C1V1 = C2V2

X grams solute
100 ml solution

mass/volume

choose formula:
CONGRATULATIONS!
By carefully reading
the problems and
picking out the
unknown, you were
able apply the correct
formula and do the
math!