You are on page 1of 43

SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL LIFT TYPES

AP Aung Kyaw
PAB2094
WELL COMPLETION AND PRODUCTION
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
2
1. Inflow and Outflow Performance
2. Review on artificial lift technique
3. Selection of artificial lift criteria
4. Rod pumps, electric submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps,
progressive cavity pumps, gas lift
5. Well performance analysis
LECTURE CONTENTS
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
3
Inflow and Outflow Performance
INFLOW PREFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS:

Straight Line (PI):

PI = Q / (PR Pwf)
Pwf = PR Q / PI


Vogel Relationship:

Qo/Qo
max
= 1 0.2 (Pwf/PR) 0.8 (Pwf/PR)
2

Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
4
Inflow and Outflow Performance
Straight line vs. Vogel Graphically
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
5
Inflow and Outflow Performance
INFLOW AND OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE
SURFACE PRESSURE
At Wellhead
PRODUCED FLOWRATE
WELL OUTFLOW
RELATIONSHIP

If Pwf > Po, the well will flow naturally
(~10% of wells by number)

If Pwf Po, the well will require Artificial Lift
(~90%)


Pwf


BOTTOM HOLE
PRESSURE

Po


Reservoir Pressure- Pr
WELL
INFLOW (IPR)
Available Pwf as function of the flow rate
Pwf
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
6
Inflow and Outflow Performance

OUTFLOW PREFORMANCE RELATIONSHIP:

Po = P
h
+ P
fr
+ P
wh

Where,
P
h
= Hydrostatic pressure
P
fr
= Pressure drop due to friction losses
P
wh
= Wellhead Pressure




Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
7
Introduction
Artificial lift - Any method used to raise oil to the surface
through a well after reservoir pressure has declined to the
point at which the well no longer produces by means of
natural energy.
It may prove necessary from the beginning of production for oil
wells when the reservoir does not have enough energy to
lift the fluid to the surface process facilities or when the
productivity index is inadequate.
The most common of artificial lift are: rod pumps, electrical
submersible pumps, hydraulic pumps, progressive cavity
pumps, Gas Lift.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
8
Gas Lift
ESPs

PC Pumps

Hydraulic Pumps
Rod pump
ARTIFICIAL LIFT METHODS
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
9
Review on artificial lift Technique
The most popular forms of artificial lift are illustrated in the figure below.
Fig.2 The most popular types of artificial lift
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
10
Review on artificial lift technique
Rod Pump A down-hole plunger is moved up and down by a rod
connected to an engine at the surface. The plunger movement displaces
produced fluid into the tubing via a pump consisting of suitably
arranged traveling and standing valves mounted within a pump barrel.


Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) employs a down-hole centrifugal
pump driven by a three phase, electric motor supplied with electric
power via a cable run from the surface penetrates the wellhead and is
strapped to the outside of the tubing.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
11
Review on artificial lift technique
Hydraulic Pump uses a high pressure power fluid to:
Drive a down-hole turbine or positive displacement pump (or)
Flow through a venturi or jet, creating a low pressure area which
produces an increased drawdown and inflow from the reservoir.


Progressing Cavity Pump (PCP) employs a helical, metal rotor
rotating inside an elastomeric, double helical stator. The rotating
action is supplied by down-hole electric motor or by rotating rods.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
12
Selection of artificial Lift
Factors influencing the preferred form of artificial lift

Well and Reservoir Characteristics
Field Location
Operational Problems
Economics
Implementation on Artificial Lift Selection Techniques
Long Term Reservoir Performance and Facility Constraints

Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
13
Rod Pump Pumps
The first type of artificial lift introduced to oil field; most widely
used for the following reasons
Low cost
Mechanical simplicity
Easy installation and operation

Rod pumps can lift
o moderate volumes (1000 bfpd) from shallow depths (7,000 ft)
o Small volumes (200 bfpd) from greater depths (14,000 ft)
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
14
Rod Pump Pumps
The surface equipment for a rod pump is illustrated in the
following figure.
Prime mover electric motor or gas engine
Gear Reducer reduces the speed from low torque high
rpm to high torque low rpm
Polished rod and sucker rods connection between
pumping unit and down-hole pump.
Polished rod moves up and down through a stuffing box which
seals against the polished rod and prevents surface leaks.
Pumping Unit
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
15
Rod Pump Pumps
The surface equipment for a rod pump
Fig.3
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
16
Rod Pump
Sucker Rods: 25 ft long, circular steel rods, outer diameter between
0.5 in and 1.125 in, threaded male connection or pin is machined at
each end, joined together by use of a double box coupling.
Smaller diameter is to be installed at the lower part, larger diameter at
the upper part.

Sucker rods are joined together by a coupling
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
17
Rod Pump Pumps
Plunger Pump
located near perforations at the bottom of the sucker rods string
consists of a hollow plunger with circular sealing rings mounted on the
outside circumference
moves inside a pump barrel which is either inserted into the tubing or is
part of the tubing

Standing Valve mounted at the bottom of pump barrel
Traveling Valve installed at the top of plunger
Standing and Traveling valves contain a ball and seat assembly
which closes the passage in the plunger and the pump inlet.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
18
Rod Pump d
Rod pump
operation
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
19
Electrical Submersible Pump(ESP)
-Electric submersible pumps are used as an
artificial lift method to produce from 150 to
60,000 bfpd.

-Effective and economical means of lifting
large volumes from great depths

-Performs at highest efficiency when
pumping liquid only

-Operating life expected 1 to 3 years

-Motor and pump rotates at 2,900 rpm for 50
Hz power




Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
20
Electrical Submersible Pump pumps
Components included
High voltage electricity supply: power to drive motor

Vent box: eliminates gas travel up the cable to the switch
board
Down-hole cable: supplies power to the motor

Pump: -consists of multi-staged centrifugal pumps
-each stage consists rotating impeller and diffuser
-pumps the well fluid up to the surface

A rotary gas separator: separates free gas from well
fluid

Protector or Seal: -connects pump housing to the motor
-prevents entry of well fluid into motor

Electric motor: driving force which turns the pump
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
21
Electrical Submersible Pump pumps
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
22
Elect
Electrical Submersible Pump
submersible pumps
ESP completion designs with gas
anchors to aid gas separation in the
casing
Vertical arrangement of gas anchors:

-makes separation of gas from liquid

-makes liquid entering into the bottom of
pump

Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
23
A
Advantages submersible
pumps
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
24
Disadvantages
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
25
Hydraulic pump
Hydraulic pump: use a high pressure power
fluid pumped from the surface
as the source of energy.

Subsurface pump: installed below working
fluid level
Power fluid: - directed to engine, and cause the
engine to reciprocate
- water, as well as oil can be used
Production fluid: directed towards the surface
by power fluid
-commingled with power fluid
or
-separate

Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
26
Hydraulic pump
Types of hydraulic pumps installation
Open Power Fluid System Closed Power Fluid System
Two Types of Power Fluid Systems:

1)Open Power Fluid System (OPF): power fluid mixes with
produced fluid and returns to
the surface; separation
conducted at surface

2)Closed Power Fluid System (CPF): surface power fluid does not
mix with the produced fluid
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
27
Hydraulic pump
Advantages

Suitable for crooked and deviated wells
Can work at great depths (up to 17,000 ft)
Supply of power fluid rate is controllable
No moving parts
Can handle solids
Power source is remote from the wellhead
Power fluid can carry corrosion or other inhibitors
Pump unit can be easily retrievable by using power fluid in
reverse flow
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
28
Hydraulic pump
Disadvantage
A similar volume of power fluid and produced
fluid is required, that is increasing the size of the
production separators.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
29
Hydraulic pumps
Wells
Surface facilities for a Open Power Fluid System
WELLS
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
30
Hydraulic pump
Wells
Surface facilities for a Closed Power Fluid System
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
31
Progressive Cavity Pump(PCP)
1. Used to produce viscous crude oils.
2. Electric motor and gear box mounted on
the surface.
3. Prime mover turns the strings of sucker
rods connected to the Progressing Cavity
Pump.
4. Latest Technology: Tendency of the failure
of tubing and Rods can be reduced by
placing the electric motor down the hole
(known as Progressing Cavity Electric
Submersible Pump, PCESP)

A well completed with artificial lift using a progressing cavity pump
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
32
PCP
Progressing Cavity
Displacement Pumps

Progressing cavity pumps are based on
rotary fluid displacement. This
spiral system consists of a rotor
turning inside a stationary stator.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
33
Advantages

. Simple Design: easy to replace rotor and stator

. High Volumetric Efficiency: in absence of gas

. High energy Efficiency: acts as positive
displacement pump

. Emulsions not formed due to low pumping action

. Capable of pumping viscous crude oils

Progressive cavity pump
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
34
Progressive cavity pump
Disadvantages

Elastomers swell in some viscous crude
oils

Problems with rotating rods increase with
well depth


Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
35
Gas Lift


Gas Lift uses additional
high pressure gas to
supplement formation
gas.
Produced fluids are lifted
by reducing fluid density
in wellbore to lighten the
hydrostatic column, or
back pressure, load on
formations.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
36
Gas Lift as an Artificial Lift Method

Gas lift injection decreases fluid average density, thus the
hydrostatic load on formations is reduced so that
available reservoir energy can cause inflow, and
commercial hydrocarbon volumes can be boosted or
displaced to the surface.

By injecting relatively high pressure gas from the surface
to a predetermined depth in the wellbore, the average
specific gravity of the fluid decreases which causes a
drop in the well face pressure (Pwf) generating additional
draw-down which turns on increased fluid production.
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
37
INFLOW
GL Equipment overview: Typical System
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
38
Gas Lift Advantages & Disadvantages
Low operational and maintenance
cost
Simplified well completions
Flexibility in well rates
Typical rates go up to 35000 bpd
Can best handle sand / gas / dev
well
Can handle solids

Must have a source of gas
Requires treatment if gas is corrosive
Possible high installation cost
Top sides modifications to existing
platforms
Compressor installation & maintenance
Well testing complexity
Advantages Disadvantages
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
39
Takes full advantage of the gas energy
available in the reservoir
High volume lift method
Valves may be retrieved by slick line or tubing
Handle abrasives and sand

Must have a gas source
Freezing and hydrates are problematic
Difficulty depleting low productivity and low
pressure wells completely
GL - Summary
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
40
AL Methods Applicability
Condition Rod Pumps Hydraulic PumpsPCP' s GL ESP' s
Scale fair fair/poor fair fair poor
Sand fair poor good very good fair
Paraffin poor poor good poor good
Corrossion good poor fair fair fair
High GOR poor fair fair very good fair
Deviation poor very good fair/good very good good
Rate poor fair fair very good good
Depth fair very good fair good fair
Flexibility very good very good good good good (with VSD)
Temperature very good good poor good good
Applicability of AL Methods
Well Completion and
Production, PAB 2094
A.P. Aung Kyaw
41
QUIZ (4)


Write down the operating principle of following artificial lift
systems.

(1)
(2)