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CPU Scheduling

Basic Concepts
Scheduling Criteria
Scheduling Algorithms
Multiple-Processor Scheduling
Thread Scheduling
UNIX example
Basic Concepts
Maximum CPU utilization obtained
with multiprogramming
CPUI/O Burst Cycle Process
execution consists of a cycle of CPU
execution and I/O wait
CPU times are generally much
shorter than I/O times.

CPU-I/O Burst Cycle
Process A
Process B
Histogram of CPU-burst Times
Schedulers
Process migrates among several queues
Device queue, job queue, ready queue
Scheduler selects a process to run from these queues
Long-term scheduler:
load a job in memory
Runs infrequently
Short-term scheduler:
Select ready process to run on CPU
Should be fast
Middle-term scheduler
Reduce multiprogramming or memory consumption
CPU Scheduler
CPU scheduling decisions may take place when a
process:
1. Switches from running to waiting state (by sleep).
2. Switches from running to ready state (by yield).
3. Switches from waiting to ready (by an interrupt).
4. Terminates (by exit).

Scheduling under 1 and 4 is nonpreemptive.
All other scheduling is preemptive.
Dispatcher
Dispatcher module gives control of the
CPU to the process selected by the short-
term scheduler; this involves:
switching context
switching to user mode
jumping to the proper location in the user
program to restart that program
Dispatch latency time it takes for the
dispatcher to stop one process and start
another running
Scheduling Criteria
CPU utilization keep the CPU as busy as possible
Throughput # of processes that complete their execution
per time unit
Turnaround time (TAT) amount of time to execute a
particular process
Waiting time amount of time a process has been waiting
in the ready queue
Response time amount of time it takes from when a
request was submitted until the first response is produced,
not output (for time-sharing environment)

The perfect CPU scheduler
Minimize latency: response or job completion time
Maximize throughput: Maximize jobs / time.
Maximize utilization: keep I/O devices busy.
Recurring theme with OS scheduling
Fairness: everyone makes progress, no one starves
Scheduling Algorithms FCFS
First-come First-served (FCFS) (FIFO)
Jobs are scheduled in order of arrival
Non-preemptive
Problem:
Average waiting time depends on arrival order
Troublesome for time-sharing systems
Convoy effect short process behind long process

Advantage: really simple!
First Come First Served
Scheduling
Example: Process Burst Time
P
1
24
P
2
3
P
3
3

Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P
1
,
P
2
, P
3



Suppose that the processes arrive in the order: P
2
,
P
3
, P
1
.



P
1
P
3
P
2

6 3 30 0
P
1
P
2
P
3

24 27 30 0
Waiting time for P
1
= 0; P
2
= 24; P
3
= 27
Average waiting time: (0 + 24 + 27)/3 = 17
Waiting time for P
1
= 6;

P
2
= 0
;
P
3
= 3
Average waiting time: (6 + 0 + 3)/3 = 3

Shortest-Job-First (SJR)
Scheduling
Associate with each process the length of its
next CPU burst. Use these lengths to schedule
the process with the shortest time
Two schemes:
nonpreemptive once CPU given to the process it
cannot be preempted until completes its CPU burst
preemptive if a new process arrives with CPU burst
length less than remaining time of current executing
process, preempt. This scheme is know as the
Shortest-Remaining-Time-First (SRTF)

SJF is optimal gives minimum average waiting
time for a given set of processes
Shortest Job First Scheduling
Example: Process Arrival Time Burst Time
P
1
0 7
P
2
2 4
P
3
4 1


P
4
5 4

Non preemptive SJF





P
1
P
3
P
2

7
P
1
(7)
16 0
P
4

8 12
Average waiting time = (0 + 6 + 3 + 7)/4 = 4
2
4 5
P
2
(4)
P
3
(1)
P
4
(4)
P
1
s wating time = 0
P
2
s wating time = 6
P
3
s wating time = 3
P
4
s wating time = 7
Shortest Job First Scheduling
Contd
Example: Process Arrival Time Burst Time
P
1
0 7
P
2
2 4
P
3
4 1


P
4
5 4


Preemptive SJF
P
1
P
3
P
2

4 2
11 0
P
4

5 7
P
2
P
1

16
Average waiting time = (9 + 1 + 0 +2)/4 = 3
P
1
(7)
P
2
(4)
P
3
(1)
P
4
(4)
P
1
s wating time = 9
P
2
s wating time = 1
P
3
s wating time = 0
P
4
s wating time = 2
P
1
(5)
P
2
(2)
Burst
Time
Arrival
Time
Process
5 0 P
1
3 2 P
2
1 4 P
3
3 5 P
4
P
1

P
3
P
2

7 0
P
4

9
11
5
2 p2
p1=3
p2=3 p1
p1 , p2
burst time
4 p3=1
p1=1

p1
burst time

p1 5
process
process
burst time
p3 p2 p4
Shortest Job First Scheduling
Contd
Optimal scheduling
However, there are no accurate
estimations to know the length of the next
CPU burst
Optimal for minimizing queueing time, but impossible to
implement. Tries to predict the process to schedule based on
previous history.
Predicting the time the process will use on its next schedule:

t( n+1 ) = w * t( n ) + ( 1 - w ) * T( n )

Here: t(n+1) is time of next burst.
t(n) is time of current burst.
T(n) is average of all previous bursts .
W is a weighting factor emphasizing current or previous
bursts.

Shortest Job First Scheduling
Contd
A priority number (integer) is associated with each process
The CPU is allocated to the process with the highest priority
(smallest integer highest priority in Unix but lowest in Java).
Preemptive
Non-preemptive
SJF is a priority scheduling where priority is the predicted next CPU
burst time.

Problem Starvation low priority processes may never execute.
Solution Aging as time progresses increase the priority of the
process.

Priority Scheduling
Round Robin (RR)
Each process gets a small unit of CPU time
(time quantum), usually 10-100 milliseconds.
After this time has elapsed, the process is
preempted and added to the end of the ready
queue.
If there are n processes in the ready queue and
the time quantum is q, then each process gets
1/n of the CPU time in chunks of at most q time
units at once. No process waits more than (n-
1)q time units.
time quantum = 20
Process Burst Time Wait Time
P
1
53 57 +24 = 81
P
2
17 20
P
3
68 37 + 40 + 17= 94
P
4
24 57 + 40 = 97
Round Robin Scheduling
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
4
P
1
P
3
P
4
P
1
P
3
P
3
0 20 37 57 77 97 117 121 134 154 162
Average wait time = (81+20+94+97)/4 = 73
57
20
37
57
24
40
40
17
P
1
(53)
P
2
(17)
P
3
(68)
P
4
(24)
P
1
(33) P
1
(13)
P
3
(48)
P
3
(28)
P
3
(8)
P
4
(4)
Typically, higher average turnaround than SJF, but better
response.
Performance
q large FCFS
q small q must be large with respect to context switch,
otherwise overhead is too high.
Round Robin Scheduling
Turnaround Time Varies With
The Time Quantum
TAT can be improved if most process
finish their next CPU burst in a single
time quantum.
Multilevel Queue
Ready queue is partitioned into separate queues:
EX:
foreground (interactive)
background (batch)

Each queue has its own scheduling algorithm
EX
foreground RR
background FCFS

Scheduling must be done between the queues
Fixed priority scheduling; (i.e., serve all from foreground then from
background). Possibility of starvation.
Time slice each queue gets a certain amount of CPU time which it can
schedule amongst its processes;
EX
80% to foreground in RR
20% to background in FCFS
Multilevel Queue Scheduling
Multi-level Feedback Queues
Implement multiple ready queues
Different queues may be scheduled using different algorithms
Just like multilevel queue scheduling, but assignments are not static
Jobs move from queue to queue based on feedback
Feedback = The behavior of the job,
EX does it require the full quantum for computation, or
does it perform frequent I/O ?

Need to select parameters for:
Number of queues
Scheduling algorithm within each queue
When to upgrade and downgrade a job
Example of Multilevel Feedback
Queue
Three queues:
Q
0
RR with time quantum 8 milliseconds
Q
1
RR time quantum 16 milliseconds
Q
2
FCFS
Scheduling
A new job enters queue Q
0
which is served FCFS.
When it gains CPU, job receives 8 milliseconds (RR).
If it does not finish in 8 milliseconds, job is moved to
queue Q
1
.
At Q
1
job is again served FCFS and receives 16
additional milliseconds (RR). If it still does not
complete, it is preempted and moved to queue Q
2
.
AT Q
2
job is served FCFS
Multilevel Feedback Queues
Multiple-Processor Scheduling
CPU scheduling more complex when multiple
CPUs are available
Different rules for homogeneous or heterogeneous
processors.
Load sharing in the distribution of work, such that
all processors have an equal amount to do.
Asymmetric multiprocessing only one processor
accesses the system data structures, alleviating
the need for data sharing
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) each
processor is self-scheduling
Each processor can schedule from a common ready
queue OR each one can use a separate ready queue.

Thread Scheduling
On operating system that support threads the
kernel-threads (not processes) that are being
scheduled by the operating system.
Local Scheduling (process-contention-scope
PCS ) How the threads library decides which
thread to put onto an available LWP
PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS
Global Scheduling (system-contention-scope
SCS ) How the kernel decides which kernel
thread to run next
PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS
Linux Scheduling
Two algorithms: time-sharing and real-time
Time-sharing
Prioritized credit-based process with most credits is
scheduled next
Credit subtracted when timer interrupt occurs
When credit = 0, another process chosen
When all processes have credit = 0, recrediting occurs
Based on factors including priority and history
Real-time
Defined by Posix.1b
Real time Tasks assigned static priorities. All other tasks
have dynamic (changeable) priorities.

The Relationship Between Priorities and
Time-slice length
List of Tasks Indexed According to
Prorities
Conclusion
Weve looked at a number of different
scheduling algorithms.
Which one works the best is application
dependent.
General purpose OS will use priority based,
round robin, preemptive
Real Time OS will use priority, no
preemption.

References
Some slides from
Text book slides
Kelvin Sung - University of Washington,
Bothell
Jerry Breecher - WPI
Einar Vollset - Cornell University