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University of Palestine

Industrial Engineering Department




Materials And Construction
Technology


Chapter (2)
Blocks And Stone works
Chapter(2)
Blocks And Stone works
Concrete Blocks works
Blocks Types
Stone blocks
The Polystyrene Blocks
Etong block
Solid blocks
Hollow blocks
Glassy blocks
Heating blocks
Blocks Testing

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks And Stone works
Generally, the blocks used shall be of local
manufacture made with cement and sand in approved
vibrated pressure machines. The fine aggregate to be
used for blocks shall be clean and sharp. It shall be
chemically and structurally stable and shall comply
with the Table of Gratings given here under. The
cement, fine aggregate and water to be used for
blocks shall comply with the requirements given
under Concrete Works; and the methods of measuring
and mixing the materials shall be the same.
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks And Stone works
15-20% 8-10% 30-35% 40-45%
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Stone block
Stone blocks are blocks cutted from the rocks
Stone blocks have a lot of benefits as:
Thermal isolator
Sound isolator
Fine look.
The unit weight of the stone block =2700Kg/cm3

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Polystyrene General Properties:
Physical Properties:
Thermal isolation ; it is a thermal isolator, due to its low density,
and compaction at its particles
Noise Isolation: it is a goal noise isolator duo to its high and
compacted particles
water permeability: it is a non-permeable material due to its
compacted particles
Weight: it is a light material where its average weight form 20 -30
Kg per m3.
Compaction: its a semi compacted material lies between hardness
and softness.
Fire resistance: it is a fire resistance under a normal condition ,
however under high temperature it will shrink before evaporation
Diminution: it has a fixed and stable dimension due to store air
with its cell
Environment stability: sun affects poly and a change in its color
and boarding strength
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Polystyrene General Properties:
Chemical Properties:
Polystyrene is a neutral chemical material,
despite at that, it could be damage with it
expose to chemical dissolver, there for we use
silicon and white glue to fix peaces to gather.
Biological Properties:
Biological change has no effect Polystyrene

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Polystyrene advantages and
Disadvantages:
Polystyrene Advantages:
Very good noise and heat isolator
Light weight material
Normal temperature has no effect on it
Polystyrene Disadvantages:
It high cost , comparing to other building material
It could be affected be sun and climate change
Required specially technical skill to handle
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Application:
To be use as isolating material , both for heat and noise
To reduce the dead load of the building
To be use as a primary material for react 's contraction
To be used filling and backing material
To be use at agriculture (Green houses )

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Etong block:
Etong blocks has rectangular parallel in shape with
a high porosity, Etong block is a high concrete
which is made from effective cement material
besides to fine sand and aluminum power
"Al(OH)3" that leads to genesis of gases inside the
mixture which swell, then the mixture is put in a
special modes and cut to the required dimension.
The standard commercial dimension which are
used in the roof (6050) cm2 which thickness
between 10 and 32 cm.
Unit weight of Etong blocks which are used in the
roof is (450-480)kg/m3

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Etong advantages and Disadvantages:
Light weight with respect to the ordinary blocks
No holes so no entrance for fresh concrete during
casting
Easy to supply the water network and electric
network
Time saving where square meter from ordinary
block need 12.50 blocks but Etong need 5-6 blocks
High prevention of infiltration of water the Etong
absorb the moisture at depth between 2-3 cm after
this depth no absorption will occur
Fire resistance and noise isolation

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Solid blocks:
Used in gravity retaining walls or in a basic blocks
under the retaining walls but these days use of
them is too little because
Its heavy weight which cause an addition loads
High cost and high manufacturing cast
Bad isolation for moisture

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Hollow blocks:
According to the used aggregate there are two type
of hollow blocks:
Ordinary blocks
Ordinary blocks are made of ordinary concrete by
using the ordinary aggregate in special size
Light blocks
light blocks are made of light concrete by using the
light aggregate
the main slandered commercial dimension for the
type of hollow blocks are tabulated as fallowing
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Weight (Kg( Dimension (cm( Type
16 152040
Ordinary
blocks
20 202040
15 142540
17 172540
20 252040
7 251440
light
blocks
8 251740
10 252040
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Glassy blocks:
This type of blocks preferred at a decors purposes
therefore its get a beautiful look with a fine
brightness.
It is difficult to built by skilled labors
The plastering material which used in built it is
quartz mixed with a white cement
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Types
Heating blocks:
The row material used in this type is clay
It has a red color
Used in a ovens and stove
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks Testing
Blocks Testing
Testing shall be carried at a random samples taken
from the material arrived in sites
Physical testing:
This test belong the dimensions, colors and
shape
Block to be approved should have:
homogenous color
homogenous Touch
regular dimension with a (F3mm )for length and
width and a (F4mm )for high
Blocks And Stone works
Blocks And Stone works
lab tests:
1. space weight test
space weight of block must not exceed the
allowable limit for example:
block 20 or 15 its weight must not
exceed 1400 kg/m3.
block 7 , 10 and 12 its weight must not
exceed 1650 kg/m3.
So for block 20
weight of unit =1400/62.50=22.40 kg.
Where 1400 is the maximum space weight
And 62.50 is number of blocks 20 in m3

Blocks And Stone works
Blocks And Stone works
lab tests:
1. bearing capacity:
The average compressive strength of solid blocks
shall be not less than 45 kg.lcm2 of gross area at
28 days (average of 12 blocks) such that minimum
crushing strength of individual block is not less
than 85% of required strength.
The average compressive strength of hollow
blocks shall be not less than 35 kg.lcm2 of gross
area at 28 days (average of 12 blocks) such that
minimum crushing strength of individual block is
not less than 85% of required strength.

Block shall be made in a vibrated pressure
machines and shall be in general. manufactured form
cement, aggregate and water the minimum cement
content shall be 200 kg cement to 0.46 m3 fine
aggregate and 0.82m3 coarse aggregate .
Block shall be hard sound square and clean
Blocks for wall shall be (40cm 3mm) long and
(20cm 3mm) high., the tolerance in thickness
shall be ( 1mm)