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Naveen Patel

Introduction to
Enterprise Networking

Naveen Patel
Course Objective
To understand both the What and the Why of
networks in general and the Enterprise Model
specifically.
Note: This course is not specific to Engineers majors. It is
intended for a wide audience with little or no prior experience
with the Networks, or Internet in general.
Naveen Patel
This course will develop fundamental concepts, protocols &
architectures of Broadband and Enterprise Networking.
Broadband networking driven by the imminent convergence of
telephony (voice), Internet (data), cable (video), and wireless
networks.
Fundamental ideas in telephone, networking, cable systems,
wireless
Convergence architectures: B-ISDN, ATM, Frame Relay,
Internet
Course Description Highlights
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Issues:
High-speed switching & router-design,
Quality of service (QoS) building blocks and architectures
Traffic engineering (MPLS, ATM, frame-relay),
Fiber optical communications,
Optical networking concepts,
Protection/restoration/survivability,
Optical link layers (SONET, WDM)

Course Description Highlights
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LANs/MANs/Last-Mile:
Gigabit Ethernet,
802.11a/b and community/hot-spot networks
Cable-modem, DSL principles and economics
Free-space-optical network
Multihop/3G wireless data, smart antennas, OFDM
The course will involve substantial reading and a term project to help student
synthesize the variety of concepts and appreciate the broad techno-economic
challenges.


Course Description Highlights
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Pre-requisites
Our assumptions about you:
Computer networks background.
Internet experience.
Access to a computer.
Knowledge of Networking Devices
Basic Network Terms
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Answers to FAQ's
Lot of paper readings in the class (due every homework) + research case study
(writing skills)
Informal quizzes given occasionally to complement homeworks. These are not
graded.

All homeworks due at the beginning of the class indicated on the course
calendar
Up to one late submission: no penalty
Beyond that 20% penalty: only if submitted before solutions are posted (max one
week grace period)

All quizzes are open-book and extremely time limited.
Quizzes consist of design qns, numerical, and short answer questions.
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Grading

Homework 25%
Term Project 15%
Exams 60%

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Whats an Enterprise Networking?
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Overview
Connectivity:
direct (pt-pt, N-users),
indirect (switched, inter-networked)
Telephony, Internet, Cable Networks: Basic Concepts
Concepts: Topologies, Framing, Multiplexing,
Flow/Error Control, Reliability, Multiple-access,
Circuit/Packet-switching, Addressing/routing,
Congestion control
Data link/MAC layer: SLIP, PPP, LAN technologies
Interconnection Devices
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Transporting Electrical Signals
Common types of transmission media
Wire pair
Coaxial cable
Fiber optic cable
Radio
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Problems?
Security!
Its much easier to protect centralized
resources than when they are distributed.
Network itself as the target..
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Before the Internet
Postal network.
Delivers different types of objects (letters, packages, etc.) world-wide.
Relatively high delay but relatively cheap.
Sender and receiver identified by their postal address (name, number,
street, city, etc.).
Telephone network.
Engineered to deliver real-time voice.
Also world-wide.
Low delay but more expensive.
Users identified buy telephone number.


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Telephone Network: What is It?
Specialized to carry voice traffic
Aggregates like T1, SONET OC-N can also carry data
Also carries
Telemetry, video, fax, modem calls
Internally, uses digital samples
Switches and switch controllers are special purpose computers

Pieces:
1. End systems
2. Transmission
3. Switching
4. Signaling

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Telephone Network: What is It?

Single basic service: two-way voice
low end-to-end delay
guarantee that an accepted call will run to completion

Endpoints connected by a circuit, like an electrical circuit
Signals flow both ways (full duplex)
Associated with reserved bandwidth and buffer resources

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Telephone Network Design
Fully connected core
simple routing
telephone number is a hint about how to route a call
But not for 800/888/700/900 numbers: these are pointers to a directory that
translates them into regular numbers
hierarchically allocated telephone number space
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Telephone Network Design
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Evolution of Communications Networks
POTS network is not designed for other forms of
communications (audio, video, and data).
About 30 years ago, a second communications network was
created with the goal of providing a better transport
mechanism for data.
In this class, we will study the technology underpinning data
networks.
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Whats a network?
Merriam-Webster Dictionary:
|A fabric or structure of cords or wires that cross at regular
intervals
A system of computers, terminals and databases connected by
communication lines
A computer network is defined as the interconnection of 2 or
more independent computers.
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Why network?
Before networks:
One large computer (mainframe) used for all processing in
businesses, universities, etc.
Smaller, cheaper computers
Personal computers or workstations on desktops.
Interconnecting many smaller computers is advantageous! Why?
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Why network?
Resource sharing!
Hardware: printers, disks, terminals, etc.
Software: text processors, compilers, etc.
Data.
Robustness.
Fault tolerance through redundancy.
Load balancing.
Processing and data can be distributed over the network.
Location independence.
Users can access their files, etc. from anywhere in the network.
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Transmission
Definition
Electrical transfer of a signal, message, or other form of
intelligence from one location to another
Co-exists with switching as being one of the two major disciplines of
telecommunication
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Connectivity...
Building Blocks
links: coax cable, optical fiber...
nodes: general-purpose workstations...

Direct connectivity:
point-to-point

multiple access
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Connectivity (Continued)
Indirect Connectivity

switched networks

=> switches


inter-networks

=> routers

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What is Connectivity ?
Direct or indirect access to every other node in the
network

Connectivity is what you get instead of a direct physical
link
Key Tradeoff: Performance characteristics worse!
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Connectivity
Internet:
Best-effort
(no performance guarantees)
Packet-by-packet

A pt-pt link:
Always-connected
Fixed bandwidth
Fixed delay
Zero-jitter

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Architecture
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Digital Divide
The Flip-side of the Knowledge Era
Our objective is freedom from distance. We are
determined to link all the villages of India not only
with good roads but also with good telecom and
internet services
------ Prime Minister of India
15th August, 2001
Haves Have-Nots
Knows Know -Nots
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BITS for All
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Last Mile Technology Solutions : 802.11(b)
NIC-Centre
New Administrative
Building
(
Mantralaya
(
500 Meters
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Informal Quiz: Prerequisites
T F (True or False)
Datalink refers to the 3rd layer in the ISO/OSI reference model
If peak rate = 10 Mbps, Avg rate = 2 Mbps and Service rate = 4 Mbps,
multiplexing gain = 2.
An even parity bit value for the 8-bit string 01101010 is 0.
Packet forwarding is a control-plane function and routing is a data-plane
function.
Bridges and switches in Ethernet allow separation of collision domains, and
reduce the degree of sharing of the physical media.
Finding path from one node to another in a large network is a transport layer
function.
It is impossible to send 3000 bits/second through a wire which has a bandwidth
of 1000 Hz.
Randomness (in service and arrival) is what causes queuing at buffers.
Littles law which relates expected queuing delay E(T) and expected # in the
system E(n) is applicable only to M/M/1 queues.
Littles law also holds for instantaneous (as opposed to average) queuing delay
and instantaneous number in the system
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Informal Quiz (Continued)
Bit stuffing is used so that framing characters do not occur in the frame
payload.
CRC is based upon the idea that it is highly unlikely for an uncorrupted packet
to be perfectly divisible by the CRC polynomial.
Random access MAC protocols tend to perform very well at low loads in terms
of channel multiplexing; but suffer from high delay at high loads.
Taking turns or token-based protocols like token-ring offer a best of both
partitioning and random access worlds.
For long delay paths, on-off flow control is better than window flow control.
Ethernet uses a CSMA/CD access method.
The packets sent in a connection-oriented network are called datagrams.
The distance-vector protocol involves checking neighbors distance vectors
and updating its own distance vector.
Address structure is required to recognize whether the destination is one-hop
or multiple-hops away.
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Informal Quiz: Solutions
T F (True or False)
Datalink refers to the 3rd layer in the ISO/OSI reference model
If peak rate = 10 Mbps, Avg rate = 2 Mbps and Service rate = 4 Mbps,
multiplexing gain = 2.
An even parity bit value for the 8-bit string 01101010 is 0.
Packet forwarding is a control-plane function and routing is a data-plane function.
Bridges and switches in Ethernet allow separation of collision domains, and
reduce the degree of sharing of the physical media.
Finding path from one node to another in a large network is a transport layer
function.
It is impossible to send 3000 bits/second through a wire which has a bandwidth of
1000 Hz.
Randomness (in service and arrival) is what causes queuing at buffers.
Littles law which relates expected queuing delay E(T) and expected # in the
system E(n) is applicable only to M/M/1 queues.
Littles law also holds for instantaneous (as opposed to average) queuing delay
and instantaneous number in the system
Naveen Patel
Informal Quiz Solutions
Bit stuffing is used so that framing characters do not occur in the frame
payload.
CRC is based upon the idea that it is highly unlikely for an uncorrupted packet
to be perfectly divisible by the CRC polynomial.
Random access MAC protocols tend to perform very well at low loads in terms
of channel multiplexing; but suffer from high delay at high loads.
Taking turns or token-based protocols like token-ring offer a best of both
partitioning and random access worlds.
For long delay paths, on-off flow control is better than window flow control.
Ethernet uses a CSMA/CD access method.
The packets sent in a connection-oriented network are called datagrams.
The distance-vector protocol involves checking neighbors distance vectors and
updating its own distance vector.
Address structure is required to recognize whether the destination is one-hop or
multiple-hops away.