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10-1

Data and Knowledge


Management
10-2
Data Management:
A Critical Success Factor
The difficulties and the process
Data sources and collection
Data quality
Multimedia and object-oriented databases
Document management
10-3
The Difficulties and the Process:
The Difficulties
Data amount increases exponentially
Data: multiple sources
Small portion of data useful for specific
decisions
Increased need for external data
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The Difficulties and the Process:
The Difficulties
Differing legal requirements among
countries
Selection of data management tool - large
number
Data security, quality, and integrity
10-5
The Difficulties and the Process:
Data Life Cycle Process and
Knowledge Discovery
Data Collection
Stored in databases
Processed
Stored in data warehouse
Transformation - ready for analysis
Data mining tools - knowledge
Presentation
10-6
Data Sources and Collection
Internal data
Personal data
External data
Internet and commercial database services
Methods for collecting raw data
10-7
Data Quality (DQ)
Intrinsic DQ:
Accuracy, objectivity, believability, and
reputation

Accessibility DQ:
Accessibility and access security


10-8
Data Quality (DQ)
Contextual DQ:
Relevancy, value added, timeliness,
completeness

Representation DQ:
Interpretability, ease of understanding, concise
representation, and consistent representation
10-9
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Multimedia and Object-Oriented
Databases
Object-Oriented database (multimedia
database)
Document management
10-11
Data Warehousing,
Mining, and Analysis
Transaction versus analytical processing
Data warehouse and data marts
Knowledge discovery, analysis, and mining
10-12
Transaction Versus Analytical
Processing
Good Data Delivery System
Easy data access by end users
Quicker decision making
Accurate and effective decision making
Flexible decision making
10-13
Transaction Versus Analytical
Processing
Solution
Business representation of data for end
users
Client-server environment - end users query
and reporting capability
Server-based repository (data warehouse)
10-14
The Data Warehouse and Marts
The purpose of a data warehouse is to
establish a data repository that makes
operational data accessible in a form readily
acceptable for analytical processing
activities . . .
A data mart is dedicated to a functional
or regional area.
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Characteristics of Data
Warehousing
Organization
Consistency
Time variant
Nonvolatile
Relational
10-16
The Data Warehouse and Marts
Benefits
Cost
Architecture
Putting the data warehouse on the internet
Suitability
10-17
Knowledge Discovery, Analysis,
and Mining
Foundations of knowledge discovery in
databases (KDD)
Tools and techniques of KDD
Online analytical processing (OLAP)
Data mining
10-18
The Foundations of Knowledge
Discovery in Databases (KDD)
Massive data collection
Powerful multiprocessor computers
Data mining algorithms
10-19
10-20
OLAP Queries
Access very large amounts of data
Analyze the relationships between many
types of business elements
Involve aggregated data
Compare aggregated data over hierarchical
time periods
10-21
OLAP Queries
Present data in different perspectives
Involve complex calculations between data
elements
Able to respond quickly to user requests
10-22
Data Mining
Automated prediction of trends
Automated discovery of previously
unknown patterns
10-23
Data Mining
Characteristics and Objectives
Data often buried deep within large
databases
Data may be consolidated in data
warehouse or kept in internet and intranet
servers
Usually client-server architecture
10-24
Data Mining
Characteristics and Objectives
Data mining tools extract information
buried in corporate files or archived public
records
The miner is often an end user
Striking it rich usually involves finding
unexpected, valuable results
Parallel processing
10-25
Data Mining
Characteristics and Objectives
Data mining yields five types of
information
Data miners can use one or several tools
10-26
Data Mining Yields Five Types
of Information
Association
Sequences
Classifications
Clusters
Forecasting
10-27
Data Mining Techniques
Case-based reasoning
Neural computing
Intelligent agents
Others: decision trees, genetic algorithms,
nearest neighbor method, and rule reduction
10-28
Data Visualization Technologies
Data visualization
Multidimensionality
Geographical information systems (GIS)


10-29
Data Visualization
Data visualization refers to presentation of
data by technologies digital images,
geographical information systems, graphical
user interfaces, multidimensional tables and
graphs, virtual reality, three-dimensional
presentations and animation.
10-30
Multidimensionality
Major advantage - data can be organized the
way managers prefer to see the data
There factors: dimensions, measures, and
time
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Examples
Dimensions
Products, salespeople, market segments,
business units, geographical locations
Measures
Money, sales volume, head count, inventory,
profit, actual versus forecasted
Time
Daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly
10-32
Geographical Information
Systems (GIS)
A GIS is a computer-based system for
capturing, storing, checking, integrating,
manipulating, and displaying data using
digitized maps.
10-33
Geographical Information
Systems (GIS)
Software
Data
Emerging GIS applications
10-34
Emerging GIS Applications
Integration of GIS and GPS
Reengineer aviation and shipping industries
Intelligent GIS (integration of GIS and ES)
User interface
Multimedia, 3D graphics, animated and
interactive maps
Web applications
10-35
Marketing Databases in Action
The Marketing Transaction Database
(MTD)
Implementation Examples
10-36
The Marketing Transaction
Database (MTD)
a new kind of database, oriented toward
targeting and personalizing marketing
messages in real time.
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10-38
Knowledge Management
Knowledge management or managing
knowledge databases

A knowledge base is a database that
contains infromation or organizational
know how.
10-39
Knowledge Management
Knowledge bases and organizational
learning
Implementing knowledge management
systems
10-40
Arthur Andersens
Learning Organization Knowledge Base
Global best practices hotline
These data combined with ongoing research
identify areas to be developed
Research analysis team with content experts
to develop best practices
Qualitative and quantitative information and
tools are released on CD-ROM for
corporate wide access
10-41
Arthur Andersens
Knowledge Base
Best company profiles
Relevant Arthur Andersen engagement
experience
Top 10 case studies and articles
World-class performance measures
Diagnostic tools
10-42
Arthur Andersens
Knowledge Base
Customizable presentations
Process definitions and directory of internal
experts
Best control practice
Tax implementations
10-43
Managerial Issues
Cost-benefit analysis
Where to store data physically
Disaster recovery
Internal or external
Data security and ethics
Data purging
10-44
Managerial Issues
The legacy data problem
Data delivery
Privacy
10-45
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