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16

th
century costumes
(Northern Renaissance)

1500-1600
FACTORS IN THE DISSEMINATION OF FASHION INFORMATION

the intermarriage of the royal families from different countries
imported garments and fabrics
books dealing with costume
travelers who brought back information about and examples of foreign
styles.
TEXTILES

A treadle-powered spinning wheel in combination
with a device called a bobbin-and-flyer mechanism
made spinning easier.
Hand knitting seems to have begun in Europe after
the 15th century. By the latter part of the 16th
century it was being used to make stockings.

Decorative Techniques of the 16th Century
Embroidered decorations were applied not only to
outer garments, but also to visible neck and sleeve
edges of undergarments such as shirts and
chemises.
A variety of Italian drawn and cutwork techniques
were also employed.
In another decorative technique called filet or lacis,
the artisan embroidered patterns on a net
background
Woman's chemise from the late 16th century, probably
from Venice. The white linen garment is embroidered
with lavender floss silk and gold thread
COSTUME FOR MEN AND WOMEN:
16th CENTURY
Costume of men and women in the 16th century can be
said to have gone through three different phases .

early phase in which a transition was made from
medieval styles to the styles of the Renaissance

second phase concentrated in the second to the fourth
decades of the century in which marked German
influence can be seen

final phase in which Spanish influences were strong.

Drawers

Throughout the century, men wore
an evolved form of the earlier
braies, which the English tended to
refer to as drawers
COSTUME FOR MEN: (1500-1515)

SHIRTS
Made of white linen, shirts were cut full and gathered into a round or square
neckline.
The neckline was often decorated with embroidery or cutwork.
They had long, raglan sleeves.

DOUBLET AND HOSE
These were laced together, the doublet being only waist length.

Hose were seamed into one garment with a codpiece at the front.

In one version the doublet (also called a paltock in England) was cut with a deep
V at the front, which sometimes had a filler (or stomacher) of contrasting color
inserted under the V.

Laces could be used to hold the open area together, and also to hold the sleeves
in place.
doublet
Doublet

Stomacher
Stomacher - A richly ornamented garment covering the stomach and chest,
worn by both sexes in the 15 and 16th centuries, and later worn under a bodice
by women.
JACKET OR JERKIN

Sometimes worn over doublets
jackets were cut the length as doublets,
were similar in shaping, and
were with or without sleeves.

In England, the jerkin was used
synonymously with the word jacket
afterwards
jerkin
BASES


Bases were separate short skirts worn with a jacket or do
for civil dress; over armor for military dress.

Made from series of lined and stiffened gores (wedge-
shaped pieces), persisted in civilian dress until well into
the mid-century.
ROBES OR GOWNS

Gowns were long, full garments with huge
funnel-shaped or large hanging sleeves
that opened down the front.

The front facings were made of
contrasting fabric or fur and turned back
to form wide, decorative revers.

Younger and more fashionable men wore
shorter gowns, ending below the hips.
Gowns were worn over doublets or
jackets.
OUTDOOR GARMENTS
WORN FOR WARMTH

Circular cloaks, open at the
front and with a slit up the
back to facilitate horseback
riding were worn over
doublets and hose.
Whereas the earlier styles had relatively
slender silhouettes, the second phase
emphasized fullness in the construction
of the costume with large, bulky, puffed
areas.


Garments were ornamented with decorative
slashings or panes (narrow strips of fabric)
under which contrasting linings were placed.
COSTUME FOR MEN: (1515-1550)

The knight on the left wears the decoratively slashed
costume of a German soldier. The slashed upper stocks
over his hips contrast with the nether stocks, which cover
his legs. Strips of cloth are tied around his leg at the knee.
A codpiece is visible at the front of his upper stocks, his
hat is an exaggeration by the artist of the military
headdress of the period

SHIRTS, DOUBLETS, JACKETS

All these garments continued much
as before, with marked increases in
slashed decoration.

Instead of having separate bases,
some doublets and jackets were cut
with gored skirts.

Some had no sleeves; some had
wide U- or V-shaped necklines
beneath which the wide neck, the
doublet, and part of the shirt was
often visible.

Bases were still worn with armor.

Sleeves of the outermost garment
were cut very full, often with a puff
from armhole to elbow and a closer fit
from elbow to wrist.
Henry VIII in later life 1537
Interalced gold braid, jewels and
slashing (where the under shirt is pulled
through).
Shirt


A gathered, embroidered shirt.

A slashed doublet
of what appears to
be orange silk.
HOSE
Hose were held up by lacing them to the
doublets.

Some were divided into two sections, upper
stocks and nether stocks, which were sewn
together

Codpieces, the pouches of fabric for the genitals
sewn at the front of the upper stocks.

Although upper stocks and nether stocks
continued to be attached, upper stocks (also
called breeches) eventually took on the
appearance of a separate garment, and were cut
somewhat fuller than the lower section.

Style variations included:
Long breeches, fitting the leg closely and ending
at the knee.
Breeches ending at the hip and more rounded.
.
codpeice
Breeches
Prince Hercule-Francois, 1572.

The Duke wears wide, somewhat melon-
shaped, trunkhose with a codpiece.

His jacket with its high collar surrounded by a
small tuff has the fashionable peascod belly
shape, and finishes below the waistline in a row
of pecadils.

His hat is in the capotain shape, decorated with
a jeweled band and a plume. The short cape is
fur-lined.
Breeches

ROBES OR GOWNS

Slight alterations in cut and trimming of robes
made for increased width. The wide revers
extended into a wide collar and

these sleeve types developed:

Sleeveless but with wide, extremely deep
armholes lined in contrasting fabric and turned
back upon themselves to show off the lining.

Short, very full, puffed-and-slashed

Long hanging sleeves.
By mid-century, the width of the shoulders had
narrowed and decreased further.
The width of the hip area gradually increased.

By the beginning of the third phase, a new
combination of garments had evolved, and men
no longer appeared in short jackets or longer
skirted jackets and hose.

Instead, the upper hose and nether hose had
evolved into a large, padded breech (called
trunk hose), which was joined to nether or
lower stocks.

Alternatively, separate breeches were worn,
with hose kept in place by garters.

The codpiece gradually went out of style after
mid-century.
COSTUME FOR MEN: (1550-1600)

Trunk Hose
SHIRT COLLARS, RUFFS

Around mid-century, men displayed the small,
square collar of the shirt at the neck edge of the
doublet.

Next, the collar of the shirt became a small ruffle,
and in the final stage of evolution the ruff developed
as a separate item of costume, separate from the
shirt.

Very wide, often of lace, and stiffly starched, the ruff
became one of the most characteristic features of
costume during the second half of the 16th century
and persisted into the first decades of the 17th
century as well.
Ruff
DOUBLET


The neck was cut high, its shape and finish
varied. Doublets were made with a row of
small, square flaps called pecadils
just below the waist.

Sleeves, though padded, followed the
shape of the arm and narrowed as the
century progressed until by 1600 sleeves
were unpadded and closely fitted.

Waistlines followed the natural waist at the
back, but dipped to a point at the front,
where padding emphasized the shape.

By 1570, the amount of padding increased
and the point at the front of the doublet
became so pronounced that it was called a
peascod belly as it resembled the puffed-
out chest of a peacock.
Peascod belly
JACKET OR JERKIN

Worn over the doublet, the jacket was similar in
shaping, but as it usually had short puffed sleeves
or pecadils at the arm and no sleeve, the sleeve
of the doublet beneath became the outermost
sleeve.
BREECHES

Breeches were separate garments worn
together with separate stockings.

They included:

Skintight versions.
Wide at the top and tapering to the
knee (called Venetians).
Wide and full throughout (called open
breeches)
Close-up photograph of slashed satin breeches of about 1600 shows the way
in which this garment was constructed.
Engraving of 1581 shows men who all wear peascod belly-shaped doublets and neck ruffs. The
man at left wears very full Venetian breeches, the men second from left and at the far right wear
short trunks attached to full-length hose, and the man third from the left wears short trunks with
canions
TRUNK HOSE

Trunk hose were made in several shapes:

Melon shaped; usually paned, heavily padded,
and ending at the hip or somewhat below;
approximately the shape of a pumpkin

gallygaskins :Sloping gradually from a narrow
waist to fullness concentrated about mid-thigh
where they ended also called Slops.

A short section, not much more than a pad
around the hips, worn with very tight-fitting hose.
This form had limited use outside of very
fashionable court circles. Boucher calls them
culots
Melon shaped
culots
CANIONS
An extension from the end of the trunk hose
to the knee or slightly below, canions were
made either in the same color or in a
contrasting color to trunk hose.

Canions fastened to separate stockings at
the bottom
Canions

HOSE AND STOCKINGS

With trunk hose and canions, stockings were used more than the long, joined
hose. Stockings and hose were either cut and sewn or knitted. References to
knitting begin to appear around 1530 and in 1589; an English inventor made a
machine for knitting stockings.

OUTDOOR GARMENTS
Gowns were largely replaced by shorter and longer capes after the middle of the
century. Short capes were cut very full, flaring out sharply from the shoulder.
Travel cape , 1571
COSTUME FOR WOMEN: 16th CENTURY

There is evidence of a linen under-bodice made from two layers of fabric
stiffened with glue. By the 17th century, this garment had taken on the name
stays in English.

Earlier it had been known as a pair of bodys, as it was cut into two sections and
fastened at the front and back with laces or tapes.

The stiffening was provided by a busk, a new device made from a flat, long piece
of wood or whalebone that was sewn into one or more casings provided in the
stays.

The shaping and support of the outer garment is yet another function of
undergarments.

Beginning with the verdugale, continuing with the bum roll, and culminating in
the huge wheel farthingale, undergarments henceforth are important elements
in the shape of Western costume.
Spanish farthingale or verdugale
The lady wears a wheel farthingale.

The skirt of the farthingale opens at the front,
but the petticoat beneath it is not visible.

Around the waist is placed a ruffle the width of
the farthingale.

She wears a standing lace ruff at the neck.

Her hair is dressed high with jeweled
decorations.
Costume Components for Women: 1500-
1530
This first phase was a transition from the styles
of the Medieval period.

CHEMISE
The chemise continued to be the undermost
garment.

DRESSES
Gowns were fairly plain, somber colors
predominated.

Bodices were fitted, skirts long and full, flaring
gently from the waistline to the floor in the front
and trailing into long trains at the back.

Women wore either a single dress or two layers
consisting of an outer and an under-dress.

If two dresses were worn, the outer skirt might
be looped up in front to display the contrasting
skirt of the under-dress.
The lady wears a wide-sleeved gown with a
typically square-cut neckline. Her headdress
is a coif with lappets hanging down on either
side of the face.

Trains on outer gowns often had decorative under-linings.

The train was buttoned or pinned to the waist at the back in order to show the lining
fabric.

Most often dress necklines were square, with the edge of the chemise visible, or
they might be cut with smaller or larger V-shaped openings at the front or at both
front and back.

Lacings held the V-shaped opening together.

Sleeve styles included:

Smooth-fitting narrow sleeves with decorative cuffs.
Wide funnel shapes with contrasting linings.
Hanging sleeves.

When two layers were worn, the under-dress usually had closely fitted sleeves and
the outermost large, full, funnel-shaped sleeves or hanging sleeves.
OUTDOOR GARMENTS

Except for ceremonial occasions when the
open mantle fastening with a chain or braid at
the front was still worn, women wore long, full
cloaks.
Costume Components for Women :1530-1575

Germany

Dresses
Softly gathered skirts were joined to closely fitted bodices with low and square or
rounded necklines.
Sleeves were close fitting, with horizontal bands alternating with somewhat
enlarged, puffed areas. The cuff extended into a point over the wrist.

Hair and head-dress
Hair was often held in a net, over which was placed a wide brimmed hat trimmed
with plumes.

Jewelry
Gold chains, frequently worn along with a wide jeweled dog collar were
important status symbols
The lady wears typical German dress with sleeves made
in alternately wider and narrower sections having V-
shaped cuffs that cover the backs of her hands. She has
several gold chains around her neck. Her headdress is
also a fanciful exaggeration of the current style of hats for
women.
Costume Components for Women in other Northern
European Countries


The second phase of costume for women outside of Germany was marked by
Spanish influences whereas men's styles of this period had been more
directly influenced by German styles

One important aspect of the Spanish influence was a tendency to
emphasize dark colors, especially black.
DRESSES

Significant changes took place in the
construction of dresses. Instead of an under-
dress and an outer-dress, women wore a
petticoat (an underskirt) and an overdress.

The overall silhouette was rather like an
hourglass. Bodices narrowed to a small
waistline. Skirts gradually expanded to an
inverted cone shape with an inverted V
opening at the front.

Bodices and skirts of dresses were sewn
together. The waist dipped to an elongated V
at the front.

A rich, jeweled belt outlined the waistline, and
from the dip in front its long end fell down the
center front of the gown almost to the floor.
The ruffled cuff of the chemise is visible at the end of the sleeve.
Large, detachable undersleeves match the fabric of the petticoat. The
flared skirt was supported underneath by a hoop called a verdugale or
Spanish farthingale
Necklines were at first mostly
square, but later were made in a
variety of more closed styles which
included:

High, closed necklines with
standing, wing collars.

Neck fillers, part of the chemise,
which were closed up to the throat
and ended in a small ruffle.

Ruffs, of moderate size at this
phase of their development, worn
with high, fitted collars

This lady wear Spanish styled sleeveless ropa. Small
ruffles, probably on her chemise, extend above the
high collar and below the ends of the sleeves. Her
coif dips slightly at the front.

The following sleeve styles developed:

Narrow at the shoulder and expanding to a
huge, wide square cuff that turned back upon
itself. This cuff was often made of fur or of
heavy brocade to match the petticoat
A detachable, false sleeve decorated with
panes and slashes through which the linen of
the chemise was visible might be sewn to the
underside of the cuff or, if the chemise were
richly decorated, the sleeve of the chemise
might be seen below the cuff.
Made with a puff at the shoulder and a close-
fitting, long extension of the sleeve to the wrist.
Though worn elsewhere as well, this style was
especially popular in France.
Full from shoulder to wrist where it was caught
into a cuff.
Wider at the top, narrower at the bottom

Sleeve decorations included
Cutting and paning with decorative fabrics,
and fastening the panes with
aiguillettes (small, jeweled metal points).
Padded rolls of fabric were sometimes
located at the joining of bodice and sleeve,
and these served to hide the laces
fastening separate sleeves to bodices.


PETTICOATS
Although the petticoat was
separate from the dress, its
visibility through the inverted V at
the front of the skirt made it an
integral part of the ensemble.

Petticoats were usually cut from
rich, decorative fabric (often
brocade or cut velvet).

The back of the petticoat was
covered by the skirt of the dress.
Therefore often only the front of
the petticoat was made in
expensive fabric, while the invisible
back was made of lighter weight,
less expensive fabric.
SUPPORTING GARMENTS

The flared, cone-shaped skirt required support to achieve the desired rigidity of
line. Support was provided by a Spanish device called the verdugale (in
Spanish, verdugado) or Spanish farthingale.

The verdugale was a construction of whalebone, cane, or steel hoops
graduated in size from the waist to the floor and sewn into a petticoat or
underskirt.
ROPA
Originally a Spanish style, the ropa was
an outer gown or surcote made either
sleeveless, with a short puffed sleeve,
or with a long sleeve, puffed at the top
and fitted for the rest of the arm's length.
It fell from the shoulders, unbelted in an
A-line to the floor.
Some versions closed in front, but most
were open to display the dress beneath.
Costume Components for Women:
15751600
The first changes in the last quarter of the
century came in the shape of the skirt,
which grew wider at the top.

Instead of the cone-shaped Spanish
farthingale, a padded roll was placed
around the waist in order to give skirts
greater width below the waist. The English
called these pads bum rolls, "bum" being
English slang for buttocks.

Later instead of using graduated circles of
whalebone, cane, or steel sewn into a
canvas skirt, the circles were the same
diameter top to bottom. Steel or cane
spokes fastened the top-most hoop to a
waistband. It was called the wheel, drum,
or French farthingale.
The farthingale was later worn with a roll of stiffened material called a
Bum Roll. The bum roll could be used to add more width to the body,
whilst spreading skirt fullness evenly. The Bum Roll had tapes which
enabled it to be tied to the waist, settling over the farthingale.
During the 16th century, the farthingale was popular. This was a petticoat stiffened
with reed or willow rods so that it stood out from a woman's body, like a cone
extending from the waist.
DRESSES

Dresses worn over wheel farthingales had enormous skirts that were either cut and
sewn into one continuous piece all around, or open at the front or sides over a
matching underskirt.

Sleeves were made fuller and with very high sleeve caps.

The front of the bodice was elongated, ending in a deep V at the waist. Additional
height came from high standing collars and dressing the hair high on the head.
RUFFS
Ruffs grew to enormous widths.
Made of sheer linen or of lace they had to be
supported by a frame called the supportasse
or by starching.

Constructions included:
Gathering one edge of a band of fabric to the
size of the neck to form a frill of deep folds.

Round, flat lace pieces without depth or folds
like a wide collar.

Several layers of lace rounds placed one over
the other.

Open ruffs, almost a cross between a collar
and a ruff, stood high behind the head and
fastened in front into a wide, square neckline

A ruff under propped with a
supportasse," a frame which
holds the ruff in place.
supportasse
CONCH

Known in French as a conque, this was a sheer, gauzelike veil so
fine that in some portraits it can just barely be seen.

It was cut the full length of the body from shoulder to floor and worn
capelike over the shoulders.

At the back of the neck it was attached to a wing-like construction
that stood up like a high collar behind the head.
ACCESSORY ITEMS FOR MEN AND WOMEN:
16 th CENTURY
HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR MEN: At the beginning of the century .

HAIR
Men cut their hair straight across the back in a length anywhere from below the
ears to the shoulder and combined this with a fringe of bangs across the
forehead.

HATS
Prominent hat styles included:
A pill-box like shape with turned-up brim that might have decorative cut-out
sections in the brimsometimes referred to as a French bonnet

A skull cap or hair net holding the hair close to the head topped by a hat with a
basin-shaped crown and wide brim, the brim turned up at one point. Many hats
were decorated with feathers.
HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR MEN: AFTER 1530

hair Beards became fashionable, and the hair was cut short

hats Hat styles included:

A moderately sized, flat crowned hat with a small brim and a feather plume.
Beret like styles with feather plumes

HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR MEN:
AFTER MID-CENTURY

hair Men allowed their hair to grow longer;
beards and moustaches remained popular

hats Hat styles included those with
increasingly high crowns, some with soft
shapes, others with stiffer outlines.

Brims tended to be narrow.

The high-crowned, narrow-brimmed hat
was called a capotain

Trimmings for hats included feathers,
braid, and jewels.
HAIR AND HEADDRESS FOR WOMEN .

HEADDRESS

The custom of having married and adult
women cover the hair, continued. These head
coverings were the most important:

coif: A cap of white linen or more decorative
fabric, usually with long lappets or short square
or pointed extensions below the ears that
covered the side of the face.
Coif shapes ranged from round to heart
shaped or gabled, an English style shaped like
a pointed arch.

As the century progressed, the coif was set
further back on the head, allowing more hair to
show. Decorative over-caps might be placed
on top of the coif, some trimmed with jewels or
metallic netting. Her coif dips slightly at the
front.
The small coif is decorated with
jewels.
Renaissance Women's Headdress


hair In the last two-thirds of the century, more hair was visible. The hair was
combed back from the forehead, puffed up slightly around the face, then pulled
into a coil at the back of the head.

To balance the width of the wheeled farthingale, extra height was gained by
dressing the hair high and decorating it with jeweled ornaments.
FOOTWEAR
With a few exceptions, trends in styles of footwear were similar for men and
for women. Often because they were more visible, men's styles tended to
greater exaggeration.


Shoes
Square-toed shapes became
more exaggerated as the
period progressed, especially
for men's shoes. Decoration
included slashing with puffs of
fabric pulled through the
openings. Costume historians
of the 19th century called
these shoes duckbills
because their shape
resembled the bill of a duck.


During the second half of the century, toes remained square, but width decreased
and shoes conformed more closely to the shape of the foot.

Among the shoe styles worn by men and women were:
Mulesbackless shoes.
Shoes with a tongue, tying with laces (latchets) that crossed the tongue from either
side.
High-heeled shoes for men and women first appeared sometime during the 1570s,
the heels about one-and-a-half inches high. Sometimes ribbon rosettes might be
placed at the front of the shoe or decorative stones set into them.

Styles worn only by women included:
Low-cut slippers with a strap across the ankle.
Chopineshigh, platform-soled shoes that originated in Italy, and spread to other
parts of Europe.
boots Boots were worn out-of-doors when riding horseback.
mules
CHOPINE
16th century shoe

JEWELRY

Although lavishly used by royalty and wealthy men and women during the first
half of the century, jewelry use by men decreased during the second half of the
century.

Men did not give up wearing jewelry but rather wore smaller quantities and more
restrained pieces.

Women continued to wear large quantities of extravagant jewels.
The types of jewelry worn by both men and women included:

Neck ornaments:
Men wore wide jeweled collars that were not a part of the garment but a separate
circular piece made of ornamental plates joined together.

Both men and women wore neck chains of gold or other precious metals that were
wrapped several times around the neck. Women wore pendant necklaces.
Men and women pinned brooches to hats, hoods, and various parts of the
clothing.
Aiguillettes (ay-gwe-laze), consisting of small jeweled points mounted on laces
which served to hold panes or slashes together, were placed on hats.
Earrings were popular in countries and periods when the hair or headdress did
not cover the ears.
Rings were worn everywhere.


The following items of jewelry were worn exclusively by women:

Ferronieres were worn in France, but were not especially popular in
England.

Jeweled belts with long cords hanging down the front became popular for
women after the second decade.
On the cord were mounted such things as a jeweled tassel, a perfume
holder (pomander), a purse, or a mirror.


Ferroniere
Pomander
ACCESSORIES

hand-carried accessories Those most often used included:

purses: Often suspended from belts, purses were carried by both men and
women.

fans: The earliest form was a square of embroidered fabric mounted on a stick;
later forms included ostrich or peacock feathers mounted on ornamental sticks
and circular folding fans.

handkerchiefs: Both men and women carried handkerchiefs.

gloves Fashionable gloves often had decorated cuffs.

masks Women wore masks out-of-doors when riding to protect the complexion
against the sun.

COSMETICS

Many cosmetics were made from potentially dangerous chemicals such as
mercuric salts, which were used to whiten the complexion. Red coloring
was applied to lips and cheeks. Perfumes were used.
Breeches
Spanish farthingale
ruff