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T
 1. Offer many functions and characteristics to
help performing accounting task such as
workbook, formula, chart, table, database
 2. Calculate & recalculate data easily using
formulas
3. Perform what-if-analysis
4. Share information, create new worksheet
using template
 5. Etc…………………
HOW TO USE
SPREASHEET
 ALWAYS REMEMBER THIS

equals sign (=), it is the trigger to tell the
spreadsheet that a calculation must be
performed.
EXCEL
Operator What it does Example

- Subtract =C3-C1

* Multiply =D5*D8

/ Divide =A3/A2

% Percentage =D4*17.5%
Function What it does Example
SUM Add up the values in a range of cells =SUM(A1:A5)

AVERAGE Work out the average of a range of =AVERAGE(A1:A5)

cells
MIN Find the lowest number from a range =MIN(A1:A5)
of cells
MAX Find the highest number from a =MAX(A1:A5)
range of cells
IF Look at a range of conditions and =IF(A5>10,"ON
return a value depending if the TARGET","TOO
condition was met or not LOW")
VLOOKUP Use the value from one cell (A5 in =VLOOKUP(A5,TA
the formula opposite) to look up BLENAME,2)
another value in a table (named
TABLENAME in this case) and return
the matching value from one of its
columns (2nd column in this case).
ABSOLUTE CELL
REFERENCE
• when a formula or function is copied or
moved to another location, any cell
references in the formula or function get
adjusted as well. However, there are
some situations where a cell reference
inside a formula must ALWAYS refer to
the same spot. Here's an example:
Selling Price is 50% more than Buying Price
Watch what happens when the
formula in cell D5 is drag down
into columns D6, D7, D8, D9.
We want to maintain this
• You need to tell EXCEL not to move out of
cell C1 even when you drag the formula
down
• This is called an “ABSOLUTE CELL
REFERENCE”
• When you use the dollar sign in front of
the letters or numbers in a formula,
EXCEL realizes that it should not try to
change those, but keep them absolutely
where they are.
• You must use ABSOLUTE CELL
REFERNCES for cell C1 in the original
formula. This will lock the C1 reference
in place. Then, when the formula is
copied to columns D6, D7, D8, D9, the
Buying Price in those columns will be
multiplied by the 50% increment in cell
C1.
• To fix the formula in cell D5:
• Click in the formula bar on the D5
reference in the formula (clicking directly
between the column and row reference
usually works best)
• Hit the [F4] key on your keyboard

• The D5 cell reference in the formula will
now look like C5*\$C\$1. The dollar signs
lock the references in place.
Continuously hitting the [F4] key will add
and remove the respective dollar signs,
allowing you to lock only the row, only
the column, both, or neither.
The corrected spreadsheet now
looks like this
An absolute cell reference is
one that refers to a constant cell
and therefore overrides relative
cell referencing
IF…Then Function
• Logical tests using logical comparisons
• = (equal to)
• < (less than)
• > (greater than)
• Or the combinations <=, >=

• The IF function has three arguments
inside brackets which are separated by
commas:
– The comparison statement
– The cell value to use when the comparison
is true
– The cell value to use when the comparison
is false
 =IF( logical comparison, value if TRUE, value
if FALSE)
Use function wizard to write the
formula
• Click on fx button to the left of the formula
bar
THE LOOKUP FUNCTION
• Most commonly used
– VLOOKUP = Vertical Lookup

PROJECT TWO -
EXCEL

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OBJECTIVE
1. Create worksheet database

– Setting up database
– Naming a database
– Enter data into database using data
form
2. Add computational fields to a
database
3. Use the VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP

meet comparison criteria

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Cont’
5. Sort a worksheet database on one field
or multiple fields.
 - Sorting
 - Automatic subtotals
 - Filtering
 - Auto Filter
 - Criteria range
6. Using database function

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Create Worksheet database
• Database – organized collection of
data
• Each row contains a record
• Each column is a field
• Database is divided into 2 areas:
– Database range – field and records
are entered
– Criteria range – search conditions
are entered, used to locate and
analyze info in database.
• Steps involved:
BKAS1013 - Mdm Nur Azliani Haniza 29
• Contains formula or functions
• Relative cell references or absolute
cell reference
• Same as project 1 excel
• Always remember that all formulas

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Use the vlookup and hlookup
• Lookup functions – search data in a range
• It will lookup value in a table and return a
corresponding value from the table to the
cell assigned the function
• VLOOKUP – used when the table direction
is vertical or down the worksheet
– =VLOOKUP (lookup_value,table
array,column_index_num,[range_lookup)
• HLOOKUP - used when the table direction
is horizontal or across the worksheet
– =HLOOKUP (lookup_value,table
array,column_index_num,[range_lookup)

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Cont’
• Lookup value = reference to the cell
user wants to search for in the
lookup table. Refer as search
argument.
• Table array = table range which
makes the lookup table
• Column_index_num = column
number or the column in lookup
table from which the data is
returned if the match is successful.
• Range lookupBKAS1013
= logical value
- Mdm Nur Azliani Haniza 32
specifying whether an exact or
Use data form to find records
that meet comparison criteria
• View records that meet only certain
conditions or comparison criteria.
• Comparison criteria = one or more
conditions that include field names and
entries in a data form
• May use some relational operators
(=,>,<,=>,=<) for comparison criteria.
• For the record to display in the data form,
it must pass all parts of conditions
• Display record that- Mdm
BKAS1013 meet the
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Sort a worksheet database
• To help arrange data in a specific
sequence
• Can sort using ascending or
descending sequence
• Can sort data on a single field or
multiple field.
• DISPLAY AUTOMATIC SUBTOTAL
– Sum of a range of related cells.
– Control field = the field on which user
sort prior to invoke the subtotals
command BKAS1013 - Mdm Nur Azliani Haniza 34
Cont’
• FILTER DATA TO DISPLAY
RECORDS THAT MEET
COMPARISON CRITERIA.
– Alternative method instead of data
form.
– Better than data form because data
form show only the first record
passes the test.
• ENTERING CUSTOM CRITERIA
WITH AUTO FILTER
– Allow user to search records that
meet multiple choice
BKAS1013 - Mdm Nur Azliani Haniza 35
Cont’
• USING CRITERIA RANGE
– Alternative for data form and filter.
– Need to perform two steps – 1.
create the criteria range, 2. use the

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Using database function
• DAVERAGE
– used to find average of numbers in a database
field that pass a test.
– Serves as an alternative to find an average using
subtotals command
– DAVERAGE(database,”field name”,criteria
range)
• DCOUNT
– Used to count the number of the numeric entries
in a database field that pass the test.
– DCOUNT(database,”field name”,criteria range)
• Database = name of database
• Field name = name of the field in the database
• Criteria range = comparison criteria or test to
pass.

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Set worksheet fix to one page
• To ensure tat you can print woksheet
fit into 1 page only.

THANK YOU….