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Bird Evolution

The fossil record indicates birds evolved


from Theropoda (Coelusauria:
Tyranosaurus, Ornitho mimosaur and
Maniraptor) during the Jurassic period,
around 150200 million years ago (Ma),
and the earliest known bird is the Late
Jurassic Archaopteryx lithographica,
around 150145 Ma.
Class Aves
Feathers (the
evagination of skin)
No teeth
Flexible long neck
with one condylus
occipital
Scales on legs
Bones with air spaces
Endothermic
Four chambered
heart

Adaptations for Flight
Honey combed bones
Air cavities
Less weight
Light Weight Skeleton
Frigate bird
7 foot wing span
4 ounce skeleton
Adaptations for Flight
Enlarged sternum
Flight muscle
attachment
Long neck
balance
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Pygostyle
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Skull
Most bones fused
Much lighter than
reptile or mammal
skull

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Adaptations for Flight
Wing
lift
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Adaptations for Flight
Feathers
Light weight
Strong

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Adaptations for Flight
Reduce body weight
No teeth
No urinary bladder
No penis
Only one ovary

Beak Adaptations
Ripping flesh
Beak Adaptations
Eating seeds
Beak Adaptations
Sucking nectar from
flowers
Beak Adaptations
Drilling wood
Beak Adaptations
Catching fish
Beak Adaptations
Basket-like bill to hold
fish caught under
water
Beak Adaptations
Filtering

Digestive System
Crop
Storage
Proventriculus
Enzymes
Gizzard
Grind food
Cloaca
Waste
Reproduction
Vision
Up to 8 times keener
than human vision
Each eye moves
indendtantly
Respiratory System
Nine air sacs
Connect to lungs and
centers of bones
Cools the bird
Fresh air always
moving
No dead ends as in
mammals
Each wing beat
moves air
Never run out of air

Benefits of Birds to Man
Eat insects, rodents
and weeds
Spread seeds for
flowers and trees
Food
Sport
Pets

Fastest Animal
Peregrine falcon
Strikes prey at 180
mph
Elephant Bird
Eleven feet tall
1100 pounds
Largest egg ever
Extinct in late 1600s
Giant Moa
New Zealand
Hunted to extinction
about 1600
Hummingbirds
Fly up, down, left,
right, backwards and
upside down
Wings beat 50 -200
times per second
Heart rate =600 bpm
Eat 2/3 body weight
each day
Nectar, pollen &
insects
Chicks
Altricial
No feathers
Cannot walk or see
Cannot feed
themselves

Precocial
Down feathers
Can walk and see
Can feed themselves
Archaeopteryx
147 MYA
Transitional fossil
Characteristics of
reptiles
Characteristics of birds
Archeopteryx
Reptile characteristics
Teeth
Boney tail
Fingers with claws
Bird characteristics
Feathers
Furcula

Sexual Selection
Bird Classification
24-30 orders
9600 species

Order Struthioniformes
Ratites in general have many physical characteristics in
common. First, the breast muscles are underdeveloped.
They do not have keeled sterna. Their wishbones /furcula
are almost absent. They have a simplified wing skeletons
and musculature. Their legs are stronger .Their tail and
flight feathers have retrogressed or have become decorative
plumes. They have no feather vanes, which means they do
not need to oil their feathers, hence they have no preen
gland.
This group is composed of ostriches (Struthionidae), rhea
(Rheidae), cassowaries (Casuari-idae), emus (Dromaiidae),
and kiwis (Apterygidae).


Order Pelecaniformes
The birds in the Pelecaniformes group are
mostly seabirds, and they are some of the
most easily recognized birds in the world. All
of the birds in the five families have webbing
that connects all four toes
Most of the other birds in the
Pelecaniformes group have bills with
serrated edges like the blade of a bread
knife. These edges help the birds hold slimy
fish. Almost all of the bills have a hook on
the end. The hooks help tear apart the birds'
prey
Gular sac
Anhingidae
Fregatidae
Pelecanidae
Phalacrocoracidae
Sulidae

Order Ciconiiformes
Long legs for wading
Long necks
No syrinx

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Order Anseriformes
These birds have compact bodies with
long necks and full webbing between
the three forward-pointing toes. The
lower bill is flat while the upper is
cone-shaped with a sort of nail at the
tip. Waterfowl are unable to glide but
can fly quickly with their necks
outstretched.

Flat bill
Webbed feet totipalmata
Cygnus olor
Order Falconiformes
Hooked bill




Accipitridae
Pandionidae
Falconidae,
Sagittariidae

They differ from other Falconiformes in
killing with their beaks instead of their feet.
They have a "tooth" on the side of their
beak for the purpose.
The beaks of accipitrids are strong, hooked
(sometimes very hooked
Order Passeriformes
Perching foot
Songbirds
5000 species
Mocking bird
Thrushes
Swallows
Magpie
Crow
Starling
Jays
Order Columbiformes
Beak with cera
Short neck
Short legs
Pigeons
Doves
Geopelia striata
Streptopelia chinensis
Streptopelia bitorquata
Columba livia Streptopelia decaocto
Order Strigiformes
Large eyes
Silent flight
Nocturnal predator
Crossed beak
Order Apodiformes
Small bird
Rapid wingbeat
Hummingbirds
Order Galliformes
Chicken like
Strong beaks
Heavy feet
Chicken
Turkey
Pheasants
Quail

Order Charadriiformes
Short bill
Strong fliers
Shorebirds
Gulls


Order Psittaciformes
Bent bill
Thick tongue
Hinged and movable
upper beak
Bright colors
Parrots
Parakeets
Order Piciformes
Two toes forward and
two toes backward
woodpeckers
Order Sphenisciformes
Webbed feet
Wings as used for
swimming
penquins
The End