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UAV Development and History at

Northrop Grumman Corporation


Ryan Aeronautical Center
Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.1
As of (date)
SI4000 SUMMER 2004
UAV Brief
File Name.2
As of (date)
UAV Family Tree
Historically, no single, universally accepted definition has
adequately categorize the Unmanned Air Vehicle.
Vehicle
Ballistic
Powered
Unguided Guided
Guided Unguided
Simple
Rocket
Recoverable Expendable
Conventional
Aircraft
Kamikaze
Recoverable Expendable
Remote
Control
Automatic
Control
Remote
Control
Automatic
Control
Guided
Missile
Cruise
Missile
RPV
Drone
Manned Unmanned
Bullet
Shell
Free Fall
Bomb
ICBM
Smart
Bomb
Current
Definition
of a UAV
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As of (date)
Unmanned Air Vehicle Origins
Necessity, the mother of invention produced flying bomb concepts during
the First World War. The armistice halted experiments on all but targets.
1917: French artillery officer, Rene`Lorin
proposed flying bombs using
gyroscopic and barometric
stabilization and control.
1918: Germany halts development of
guided weapons.
1918: Charles Kettering (USA) flies Liberty
Eagle Kettering Bug and Army Air
Corps orders 75 copies.
1920: Elmer Sperry perfects the gyroscope
and the first enabling technology
makes flight control feasible
1932: RAE Fairey Queen crashes,
technology is still in its infancy.
Fairey Queen IIIF Mark IIIB, 1932
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USA - Targets Become Successful
1935 - Reginald Denny develops the RP-1 and launches the Radio Plane
Company, later to become the Northrop Ventura Division.
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As of (date)
V-1 Debuts in 1943
Advanced technologies of the Forties provided control, guidance and targeting.
Propeller driven air-
log governed range
Speed was determined
by engine performance
at max. power
Azimuth Control by
gyroscope governed
by magnetic compass
Aneroid barometer
altitude control
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As of (date)
Launch Systems
A wide variety of launch systems have been developed for UAV applications
Pneumatic Catapult
JATO/RATO Launch
Air Launch
Runway Launch
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As of (date)
UAV Recovery Techniques
Recovery schemes are determined by application and UAV size, the trend is
toward autoland capability
Mid Air Retrieval System (MARS)
Conventional
ABIAS
Net
Parachute
Ryan Aeronautical
UAV History
Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.8
As of (date)
SI4000 SUMMER 2004
UAV Brief
File Name.9
As of (date)
Ryan XAAM-A-1 Firebird
Firebird ushers in the missile age at Ryan in 1949
Speed was determined
by engine performance
at max. power
Aneroid barometer
altitude control
Early radar guidance was a forerunner to Sparrow missiles
7.5 without booster
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As of (date)
BQM-34 Firebee Subsonic Aerial Target
High Performance, J et-powered UAV designed to simulate
hostile aircraft or missile threats
BQ-34 Firebee
evolved from
the Ryan KD-A
Primary Missions
Air defense weapons development, test &
evaluation
Air defense weapons training
Secondary Missions
Aerial reconnaissance
Experimental aerial platform
System Capabilities
Ground launch
Air launch from C-130
Recovery by parachute on land or at sea
8-12 flights per vehicle
Flight Control and Navigation
Remotely piloted from airborne or ground
control station
Preprogrammable Microprocessor Flight
Control System ( MFCS) for autonomous flight

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As of (date)
BQM-34E Firebee II Supersonic Aerial Target
Turbojet Powered UAV designed to simulate high speed
hostile aircraft and anti-ship missiles
Primary Missions
Air defense training
Aerial combat training
Weapons systems development
Secondary Missions
Test vehicle for advanced
aerodynamic technology research
(NASA)
System Capabilities
Ground Launch
Air launch from C-130
Recovery by parachute on land or at
sea
8-12 flights per vehicle


Firebee II with external fuel tank in
subsonic flight
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AQM-91A Compass Arrow
Twenty plus vehicles built in the late 60s, still holds the
unmanned turbine powered altitude record, 80,000 ft.
Incorporated several low observable features.
Significant reduction in the RCS features of
the aircraft as seen from the ground.
Vertical tails and fuselage sides canted toward
centerline to eliminate the specular reflections
from the side aspect at or below the horizontal
plane.
The engine inlet, located on top of the fuselage
was lined with RAM, to conceal it from angles
below the horizontal plane.
Exhaust nozzle was cooled to reduce IR
signature, and like the inlet, was placed so as
to be hidden by other airframe features at
many aspects of observation. RAM was
applied to the leading edges of the wing and to
some portions of the fuselage.


First large UAV specifically designed to survive by stealth.
Compass Arrow operated at altitudes in excess of 80,000 ft. while
traveling at subsonic speeds.
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AQM-81A/N Firebolt
Rocket-powered target missile
designed to replicate high
altitude and high speed
threats.
Primary Mission
Provide a realistic threat simulation of
advanced enemy threats that fly in the upper
reaches of earths airspace for
Air defense training
Aerial combat training
Weapons systems development
Reusable Hybrid Rocket Powered Target
Missile
Air Launch
Recovery by MARS over land or sea
20 Flights per vehicle
Flight Control and Navigation
Pre-programmable Mission Logic Control Unit
(MLCU)
Remotely piloted from Ground Control Station
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YQM-98A Compass Cope
Two units built and flight tested in 1976, held the unmanned turbine engine
endurance record of 28 hr. 11 min. until surpassed by Global Hawk on March
21, 2001
Primary Mission
High altitude endurance reconnaissance
and surveillance

Minimum 24 hours of endurance
750 lbs. payload capability
Triple redundant autoland system
Dual redundant avionics system
Quadruple redundant Command &
Control System
First major Use of GOTS/COTS
hardware
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Model 410 Long Endurance UAV
Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance system for civilian or
military customers
Primary Mission
Provide a long-range or long-
endurance aerial platform for:
Military reconnaissance
Electronic communications
relay
Electronic warfare
countermeasure
Law enforcement, drug
interdiction
Border surveillance
Disaster area observation
Natural resources
monitoring
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Model 410 Long Endurance UAV (continued)
Economical aerial reconnaissance and surveillance system for civilian or
military customers
System Components
Long Endurance Aerial Vehicle
Composite construction
Modular design
Two-man assembly / disassembly
Short, unimproved runway capability
Ground Control Station
Self contained, transportable, fully
integrated
Autonomous flight control & mission
programming
Remote manual flight & sensor control
Real-time datalink
Image data processing
Onboard Flight Control & Navigation
Central Flight Control Computer (CFCC)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Auto takeoff and landing
Payload
300 pound capacity
24 cubic foot volume
Stabilized retractable sensor platform
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As of (date)
Model 324 Medium Range
Mobile and transportable advanced technology unmanned aerial
reconnaissance system
Primary Mission
Conduct autonomous tactical aerial
reconnaissance and surveillance

System Components
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Composite airframe
Ground launch from mobile
transport trailer
Recovery by parachute with air-bag
attenuation system
Onboard Flight Control & Navigation
Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)
Inertial Navigation System (INS)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
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Model 324 Medium Range (continued)
Mobile, and transportable advanced technology unmanned aerial
reconnaissance system
System Components (cont)
Mobile Launch & Recovery Vehicle (LRV)
8 wheel all-terrain tractor
6 wheel trailer transport/launcher
Self-contained command 7 control shelter
Autonomous flight control & mission
programming
Remote manual flight control
Command tracking & telemetry system

Payload
CAI/Recon Optical KS-153A camera
Loral IRLS D-500 Infrared line scanner
Ryan Aeronautical
Modern UAV Design & Technology
Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.19
As of (date)
SI4000 SUMMER 2004
UAV Brief
File Name.20
As of (date)
Model 350 Medium Range UAV
Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial reconnaissance system
Mission
Provide near real-time optical and/or
infrared images of heavily defended areas
Target detection
Target identification
Battle damage assessment

System Components
Onboard Flight Control & Navigation
Mission Logic Control Unit (MLCU)
Inertial Navigation System (INS)
Global Positioning System (GPS)

Payload
Advanced Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance
System (ATARS)

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Model 350 Medium Range UAV
Advanced technology tactical unmanned aerial reconnaissance system
System Components
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Ground launch
Air launch ( from F/A-18 and F-16R)
Soft landing recovery by parachute or by
Mid-Air Recovery System (MARS)

Local Control & Monitoring Station (LCMS)
Self-contained, transportable
Autonomous flight control & mission
programming
Remote manual flight control
Command, tracking, telemetry & image
data link systems
Image data processing system
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As of (date)
Global Hawk HAE UAV
High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial Reconnaissance System
Mission
Provide continuous day /
night, high altitude, all
weather surveillance and
reconnaissance in direct
support of allied ground and
air forces across the
spectrum of conflict
Increase the reach of existing
and future surveillance
systems
Extraordinary range and
endurance
Fewer number of systems
required to maintain global
ISR coverage
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As of (date)
Global Hawk HAE UAV
The Global Hawk is an Integrated System
Speed
(n.miles/hour)
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As of (date)
Global Hawk System Overview
TACTICAL USERS
(SENSOR ONLY)
LAUNCH AND
RECOVERY
ELEMENT
(C
2
ONLY)
MISSION
CONTROL
ELEMENT
(C
2
&
SENSOR)
C
2
LOS
COMMUNICATIONS
UHF-Band: C
2
LOS
UHFSATCOM
C
2
C
2
C
2
C
2
SATCOM
INMARSAT C
2
INMARSAT or Equivalent
SENSOR
Ku SATCOM
Ku-Band: C
2
and Sensor
SATCOM
C
2
&
SENSOR
C
2
&
SENSOR
CDL
SENSOR
CDL C
2
&
SENSOR
X-Band CDL: C
2
and Sensor
LOS
ATC VOICE
ATC Voice
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Global Hawk Vehicle Size
L e n g t h : 9 7 f e e t
W i n g s p a n : 9 4 f e e t
M a x T a k e o f f W t : 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 l b .
L o i t e r S p e e d :
O p e r a t i o n a l C e i l i n g : 4 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t
M a x U n r e f u e l e d R a n g e : 2 , 7 0 0 N M
L e n g t h : 4 4 . 4 f e e t
W i n g s p a n : 1 1 6 f e e t
H e i g h t : 1 5 . 2 f e e t ( a t t a i l )
M a x . T a k e o f f W t : 2 5 , 6 0 0 l b .
L o i t e r S p e e d :
O p e r a t i o n a l C e i l i n g : 6 5 , 0 0 0 f e e t
M a x U n r e f u e l e d R a n g e : o v e r 12,000 N M
L e n g t h : 6 3 . 1 f e e t
W i n g s p a n : 1 0 4 . 8 f e e t
H e i g h t : 1 6 . 7 f e e t ( a t t a i l )
M a x T a k e o f f W t : 4 0 , 0 0 0 l b .
M a x i m u m S p e e d : 410 kts. TAS
O p e r a t i o n a l C e i l i n g : o v e r 7 0 , 0 0 0 f e e t
M a x U n r e f u e l e d R a n g e : o v e r 3 , 0 0 0 N M
B-737 U-2 Global Hawk
573 kts. TAS
343 kts. TAS
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As of (date)
Global Hawk Integrated Sensor Suite
Ryan Aeronautical
Future UAV Technology
Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.27
As of (date)
SI4000 SUMMER 2004
UAV Brief
File Name.28
As of (date)
Telepresence
Telepresence, also called virtual presences, is participation in an environment
from a remote location
A subset of virtual reality, telepresence uses
external mechanics to view the environment,
Lethal UAV weapons delivery systems of the
1970s put the shooter out of harms way.
Ryan developed systems to launch a variety of
guided standoff weapons from BGM-34C UAVs.
Virtual Reality software today contains the
following features:
Object database - descriptions of virtual objects or
environments
Attribute database - color, texture, orientation
Sensor driver- monitors tracking devices to
know actual position
display driver- reality engine updates object
for display
Simulation manager - coordinates entire
system maintaing proper perspective between
objects
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Virtual Reality Web sites
Commercial VR packages are available from many houses on the web.
World Tool Kit Sense8 www.sense8.com
VR Development Systems VREAM www.vream.com
Walk Through Virtus www.virtus.com
Virtual Reality Studio Danmark Software WWW.domark.com
Cyberspace Development Kit Autodesk www.autodesk.com
Recent check of the links, Red are no longer pertinent or active.
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As of (date)
Fuzzy Logic / Neural Nets
The development of an adaptive control system to enhance engine
performance is on the horizon
Fuzzy logic algorithms and hardware have
enjoyed a recent development frenzy
The technology is ready for transition to
UAV class engine controllers when the need
is great enough
Current F/A-18 Fuzzy logic engine control
work is funded and ongoing
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Voice Directed UAV
Speech recognition could replace some navigation logic allowing mixed use of
UAVs and manned aircraft
Neural Network computing methods could be
applied to artificial speech recognition and UAV
command language
This will increase asset interoperability for a
force commander or commercial air traffic
controller
Minimizes ground control station assets
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As of (date)
Damage Detection / Failure Prediction
UAV Mission Failure rate can improve airframe monitoring and failure
prediction.
In high threat areas, damage may occur due to
hostile action.
With proper sensors, a UAV could decide to
return to base if damage or failures were detected
prior to catastrophic failure.
Smart structure technologies will detect damage,
predict useful life, continue operation at optimal
flight conditions.
The UAV will react by reducing speed, flying
minimum G profile or dumping fuel and returning
to base
UAVs -
Where Weve Been and Where
Were Going
Norman S. Sakamoto
norm.sakamoto@ngc.com
619.203.5726
File Name.33
As of (date)
SI4000 SUMMER 2004
UAV Brief
File Name.34
As of (date)
Customers
USAF
USA
USN
USCG
RCAF
JDF
GOI
GOE
NATO
DEA
DNA
DOT
CIA
FBI
NSA
INS

Sandia
Los Alamos
LLL
NASA
DARPA
DARO
MDA
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Performance
Altitude 7 Ft to 100,000 Ft
Velocity 60 Kts to Mach 4
Endurance 7 Minutes to 40 hours
Range 25 NMi to 14,000 Nmi
Take-Off Gross Weight 200 Lb to 34,500 Lb
Payload Weight 25 Lb to 3,000 Lb


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Missions
IMINT
SIGINT
GPS Pseudolite
Air Sampling
Strike
EW/ESM
Decoy
BPI/BPLI
Target
Cargo / Logistics
ACN
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Aerodynamics
Conventional Airfoil
Rogallo Wing
Laminar Flow
SuperCritical
Ailerons, Elevators, Rudders,
Ruddervators, Spoilers, Speed
Brakes, Flaps, Elevons
BLC

Twin Verticals
V - Tails
Canards
V/STOL
Non Atmospheric
Hypersonic
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Airframe
Metallic
Aluminum
Steel
Titanium
Magnesium
Composite
Fiberglass
Graphite
Molded
Sheet Molded
Compound

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Low Observables
Radar
Acoustic
Visual
IR


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Propulsion
Reciprocating ( Aircraft)
2 Cylinder 2 Cycle
Turbo Prop
Turbo Jet
Turbo Fan
Ramjet
Pulse Jet
Rocket
Electric Motors

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Payload Sensors
Cameras
Still
Motion
Panoramic
Electro-Optical
FLIR
IRLS
SAR
ISAR
IFSAR

Chaff
Active EW Jammers
COMINT
ELINT
ESM
Ordnance
Leaflets/Propaganda

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Navigation
Dead Reckoning
Doppler
LORAN / Omega
INS
GPS/DGPS
INMARSAT
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As of (date)
Flight Controls
Analog
Digital
Hybrid
Duplex
Triplex
Electrostatic

AHRS (Gyros)
Inertial
Formation Flight
Autonomous Flight
Active Real-Time
Re-Planning
Re-Tasking


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Secondary Power
Batteries
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
Solar
Generator

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Actuation System
Hydraulic
Pnuematic
Electro-Mechanical
Linear/Rotary
Push/Pull
Cables/Pulleys


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UAVs - Current Development
and Emerging Uses
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The Networked Vision of the Future
UAVs Are A Major Part of the Vision
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As of (date)
Warfighters Challenge ~ Future Combat
Regional & Global Asymmetric Warfare
Proliferation of Ballistic Missile/Cruise Missile Threats
Proliferation of WMD Capabilities /Systems ~ and the Will To Use Them
Uncertainty In Situational Awareness/Decisions
Non-Traditional Roles & Missions ~ With Force Structure Pressures
Acquisition of Advanced Technology Force Structures
Technologies, Applications, Systems & Insertion Sequencing
Force Mix, Postures, Basing, CONOPS & Employment Concepts
Sustaining Capability in the Transition/Transformation
Establishing & Sustaining Affordability - No Immunity To Budget Constraints
Understanding & I ntegrating UAVs I s A Significant Part of the Challenge
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As of (date)
Some of the Emerging Concepts & Requirements
That UAVs Can Meet

These Lists Are
By No Means
Comprehensive

Military
BM/C4ISR
BPLI - Theater Ballistic Missile Defense
Cruise Missile Defense - BM/C4ISR & Intercept
Battlespace ~ Infosphere Comms & Reach-Back
Kinetic & Non-Kinetic Combat Operations
PSYOPs & SOF Operations
SBIRS Low Adjunct & Tactical Surrogate
Satellite / Sensor Test Bed
Space Sensing
Space Surveillance
Space Tracking
Space Comms/Data Relay
Military Science
Military R&D
Augmentation of GPS

Civil Authority & Commercial Applications
Communications
Law Enforcement
Drug Interdiction
Disaster Preparedness & Management
Global Meteorological (NOAA)
Forest Fire Surveillance
Environmental Monitoring, Management & Enforcement
Agricultural Resource Surveillance & Management
Natural Resource Surveillance & Management
Scientific Research
File Name.50
As of (date)
Questions?