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Elastomer for Heavy

Engineering Applications
(a)Laminated Bearing
Sandwich structure
between elastomer
and steel plate
Widely used because
it is able to prevent &
reduce the movement
of the bridge due to
few factors
(earthquake, creep,
etc)
The number of steel plate, will increase the
amount of load that can be sustain by the bridge
(b) Plain Pad Bearing
Consist of rubber,
without the steel plate

( c ) Strip bearing
Strip bearing similar with plain pad
bearing but the length of the bearing is
longer than its width.
( d ) Pot Bearing
Pot bearing bearing which consists
of solid rubber block and it is located in
between metal piston and metal
cylinder.
Pot Bearing
Plain Pad Bearing
Laminated Bearing
Example the needs of good bridge
bearings
Benicia-Martinez Bridge

The bearing for this bridge
Increased to 53 inch
whenever sustained
5 mil. Lbs loads.
Main materials used as bridge bearing:
ELASTOMER
Function of Elastomer
absorb the vibration
allow the changes in the length of bridge
ease of installation
used to cover the metal plate
(for laminated bearing)
Types of Elastomer used as bridge
bearings
Natural Rubber
HDRB ( High Damping Rubber )
Neoprene
SBR
EPDM
NBR
Why Elastomer?

Long lasting
Good in impact absorption
Good bonding with metal
Good resistance to ageing
Good tearing properties
Good physical properties
sesuai untuk panas dan sejuk
Good resistance to oil and chemicals
Disadvantages
Expensive (especially for rubber with high
resistance to ageing)
Can be attack by:

ester
ketone
hydrocarbon with nitrogen
aromatic
Physical Properties
Natural
Rubber
SBR EPDM Neoprene Nitrile Urethane Silicone Fluorocarbon
Specific Gravity 0.93 0.94 0.86 1.23 1.00
1.05 to
1.25
0.95 to 1.20
1.4 to
1.95
Durometer, Range 30-100 40-100 30-90 40-95 30-90 55-100 25-90 55-90
Tensile Strength E F-G VG VG VG E F-G VG
Elongation VG-E G G G G G-VG VG-E F-G
Compression Set G G G F-G G G-E G-E G-E
Heat Resistance F F-G VG-E F-G G F-G E E
Resilience or Rebound E F-G G VG F-G F-E G F
Impact Resistance E E G G F G-E P-G E
Abrasion Resistance E G-E G-E G-E G-E E P-F F-G
Tear Resistance E F F-G F-G F-G E P-F F
Cut Growth E G G G G G-E P-F P-F
Flame Resistance P P P G P P-F F-G VG-E
Impermeability, Gas F F F-G F-G G P-F F-G E
Weathering
Resistance
P-F F E VG F-G G-E E E
Low Temperature
Limit*
-10 TO -
50F
0 TO -
50F
-20 TO -
60F
-10 TO -
50F
-30 TO -
40F
-10 TO -
50F
-65 TO -
150F
+10 TO -40F
High Temperature
Limit*
158 TO
225F
158 TO
225F
300 TO
350F
225F 275F 250F
400 TO
550F
400 TO 450F
Comparison of physical properties of polymer
P = Poor F = Fair G = Good
VG = Very
Good
E = Excellent
Neoprene = polychloroprene
First Choice
Polychloroprene before vulcanization
Polychloroprene after vulcanization
Natsyn 2200 100.0
Zink oxide 3.0
stearic acid 2.0
Wingstay 100 AZ 1.0
VANOS 3C 2.0
VANWAX H 2.0
HAF (N-330) carbon black 50.0
aromatic oil 10.0
Sulphur 0.5
MOFAX 1.9
TOTAL 172.4
NEOPRENE PADS:
FORMULATION
NEOPRENE PADS:
FORMULATION
Properties, cured 17 minutes @ 143C
Hardness, shore A 62
Tensile, MPa(psi) 26(3750)
Elongation,% 650
Density, Mg/m3 1.10
Tear strength, Die C, kN/m (pli) 68(390)

Compression set after 22 Hours@70C (158F)
Method B, % Set 13
Methodology in
preparing the
laminated bearing
Preparation of rubber compound- according to
the right composition
Prepare the metal plate
Apply the bonding agent to the metal plate
Prepare the rubber compound and metal
plate
Compression Moulding
Testing ( to test the quality and the properties)