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Breakwaters are man made structures

constructed to protect Port and Harbour


structures from fury of ocean waves and
provide tranquil conditions for ships at
berth.


BREAKWATER
PROFILES
Breakwaters are mainly classified
under the following four groups
depending upon their type of
construction and sea-ward slope.

Vertical breakwater - Type V

Composite breakwater - Type C
Special type of breakwaters
Sloping breakwater - Type S
Sloping breakwater - Type S:

This has a sea-ward sloping face of 1:1 or
flatter.

Vertical breakwater - Type V:

This has a vertical or near vertical sea-
ward face
Composite breakwater - Type C :

This consists of a vertical breakwater
constructed on a rubble foundation
with slope on both sides.
Special type of breakwaters such as
sub-merged breakwaters,
floating breakwaters,
bubble screen
(compressed air) breakwaters
are used for special applications.
Typical cross sections of the first three types
of breakwaters are shown in the Figure.
TYPICAL CROSS SECTION OF BREAKWATERS
Rubble Mound

Conventional multi-layer
rubble mound

Multi-layer rubble mound

with superstructure


Berm Breakwater


Reef Breakwater

TYPES OF RUBBLEMOUND BREAKWATERS
Conventional Rubblemound Breakwater
Toe
Core
Leeside Seaside
Filter
Crest
LWL
HWL
Berm Breakwater
CORE
CREST
BERM
SEA SIDE LEE SIDE
FILTER
LWL
HWL
CONCEPT OF WIDE TOE-BERM IN DESIGN
OF RUBBLEMOUND BREAKWATER
Wide Toe
Core
Leeside Seaside
Crest
LWL
HWL
Filter
Breakwater with Wide - Toe Berm
+11 m
7 m
Lee Side
Sea Side
20 m
0.0 m Core
3 5 t
- 7 m
Damage Profile
Net Saving = Rs. 12 Crores
COST COMPARISON
OF CONVENTIONAL & WIDE TOE BERM BREAKWATER
Conventional
1) Tetrapod = 43 T ( 73 Cum / m)
@ Rs. 6000/Cum = Rs. 4.38 Lakh / m

2) Toe berm = ( 3-5 t stones)= 181 T/m
@ Rs. 340/ T = Rs. 0.62 Lakh/ Rmt

3) Secondary ( 0.75- 2t stones) = 566 T/m
@ Rs. 340/ T = Rs. 1.92 Lakh / Rmt

4) Core Stones ( 5-500 kg) = 600 T/m
@ Rs. 250/ T = Rs. 1.40 Lakh / m
Total = Rs. 8.32 Lakh / m
Total Cost for 600 m = Rs 49.9 Crore
Wide Toe Berm
1) Tetrapod = 12 T ( 46 Cum / m)
@ Rs. 4475/ Cum = Rs. 2.05 Lakh / m

2) 20 m toe berm ( 3-5 t stones)= 275 T/m
@ Rs. 340/ T = Rs. 0.94 Lakh/ Rmt

3) Secondary ( 0.75- 2t stones) = 566 T/m
@ Rs. 340/ T = Rs. 1.92 Lakh / Rmt

4) Core Stones ( 5-500 kg) = 600 T/m
@ Rs. 250/ T = Rs. 1.40 Lakh / m
Total = Rs.6.31 Lakh / m
Rs 37.9 Crore
Various types of natural rock are
normally used. However, when
sufficiently large blocks are not available
from the quarry or the wave conditions
are very severe at the breakwater
locations, the concrete artificial armour
units are used.
About 40 different types of artificial
armour units have been developed.
The important among them are
shown in Figure.

ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR BREAKWATERS
BREAKWATER DESIGN FORMULAE
RUBBLE MOUND BREAKWATER SLOPES
The stability of the Breakwater is
dependent on its slope.
The weight of the armour unit increases
with the steepness in slope.
Generally adopted slopes are 1:1.5 to 1:3
STABILITY TESTS
Though the cross section of the
breakwater are evolved based on the
Empirical Formulae, it is essential to carry
out a Flume Test with Random Waves.

MODEL TESTS
Mathematical Model
Physical Model
Wave Basin and
Wave Flume

OPTIMISATION OF DESIGN OF
RUBBLEMOUND BREAKWATERS
Hydraulic Model Studies in Wave Flumes / Basins
MODES OF FAILURES OF CONVENTIONAL
RUBBLEMOUND BREAKWATER
Slip Failure
Scour
Berm & Toe
Erosion
Filter
Instability
Core Settlement
Sub Soil Settlement
Erosion, Breakage
of Armour
Overtopping
Breaking, Sliding,
Tilting of Copping
Wall
Venting
Slip Failure Slip Failure
RUBBLE MOUND BREAKWATERS
Recommended three layer section
(Shore Protection Manual 1984)
Conventional Caisson Type Breakwater
Conventional Block Type Breakwater
Sloping Top Type Breakwater
VERTICAL BREAKWATERS
Perforated Wall Type Breakwater
Japanese Type Breakwater
Composite Type Breakwater


RUBBLE MOUND BREAKWATER
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES


Land or Marine Haul of Material
Land or Marine Placing of Materials
Construction from Shore outwards and
Construction from offshore towards shore
One or all the above combination may be
required in a particular project.

Land Based Equipment
Direct Dumping of Material
Dump Trucks
Loaders and
Cranes


Land Based Equipment
Controlled Placing
Cranes

BREAKWATER CONSTRUCTION
LAND BASED EQUIPMENT
DIGITAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BLAST FACE
BEFORE BLASTING.
SORTING OF STONES IN QUARRY
LOADING OF STONES INTO DUMPERS
TRANSPORT OF STONES FROM
QUARRY TO BREAKWATER
CASTING OF ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS
STACKING OF ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS
ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS STACKYARD
HANDLING OF ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS
HANDLING ATTACHMENT FOR ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS
HANDLING OF ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS IN STACKYARD
PLACING OF ARMOUR STONES
PLACING OF ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS
PLACING OF ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS
PLACING OF ARTIFICIAL CONCRETE BLOCKS
BREAKWATER CONSTRUCTION - LAND BASED TECHNIQUES
Floating Equipment
Direct Dumping of Material
Split Barges
Bottom Door Barges
Tilting Barges
Floating Equipment
Controlled Placing
Side Stone Dumping Vessel
Fall Pipe Vessel
Flat Deck Barges with Bull Dozer
Pontoon with a Crane
BREAKWATER CONSTRUCTION FLOATING EQUIPMENT
Split Hopper Barge Dumping through a pipe Side Stone Dumping
Vessel
CONSTRUCTION - GEOTEXTILE
CONSTRUCTION - CORE

CONSTRUCTION - TOE

CONSTRUCTION - CORELOC

VERTICAL BREAKWATER
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES

CAISSON UNDER CONSTRUCTION
CAISSON BEING TOWED TO POSITION
CAISSON IN POSITION
BREAKWATER CASE STUDIES
PARADIP PORT
PARADIP PORT
PORT OF VISAKHAPATNAM LAYOUT OF OUTER HARBOUR

CHENNAI PORT
TUTICORIN PORT
MORMUGAO PORT
NEW MANGALORE PORT
NEW MANGALORE PORT
KAKINADA PORT BREAKWATER
MOPLABAY CANNANORE
FISHERIES HARBOUR
REHABILITATION OF BREAKWATERS
CONSTRAINTS IN REHABILITATION OF
BREAKWATER

CAUSES OF DAMAGE
Freak waves of 4 m to 8 m height attacked
breakwater on 10 April 1987
Breakwater was in construction stage.
Breakwater was designed for 4.0 m waves.
Higher waves overtopped the breakwater.
DAMAGED BREAKWATER AT PORBANDAR
Causes of damage

Severe cyclone of June 1998
caused total damage to 600 m
length of breakwater from the
roundhead.

Higher waves than design
wave lead to overtopping of
lower crest

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