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UMTS Basics

Difference Between 2G and 3G SIM Cards


A regular SIM come with the 32KB of SIM memory that sufficient to
handle data on 2G network.
3G network use more channels and very much faster than 2G thus it
required more memory on SIM card to handle 3G network data follow
to process high speed data just like cache memory so 3G SIM has
memory of 128 KB.
That is the main difference otherwise there is not other differences.




Network Architecture
GSM900/1800: 3G (WCDMA):
Single Frequency Network
Channel Element in
UMTS Network

CE resources are a
type of NodeB hardware
resource.

The number of CEs
supported by single
NodeB indicates the
capacity resource of the
NodeB.

Services at different
rates require different
numbers of CEs to
ensure proper CEs are
classified into uplink (UL)
CEs and downlink (DL)
CEs.
Freq. 1
Freq. 1
BS1
BS2
Code D
CDMA Application
Users are distinguished by scrambling codes and OVSF codes
Self-interference system
CDMA system is restricted to interference (GSM system is restricted to
frequency resources)
Narrowband
System
Fading
Transmit Signal
Received Signal
f f
P(f) P(f)
Fading
Transmit Signal Received Signal
f
f
P(f) P(f)
Broadband
System
Countering Fading
Function of OVSF Code
OC1, OC2
OC3, OC4
OC5, OC6, OC7
OC1 , OC2, OC3
OC1, OC2
OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4
Uplink: distinguish different radio channels from the same UE.
Downlink: distinguish different radio channels from the same NodeB.
Function of Scrambling code
Downlink: distinguish different Cells
Uplink: distinguish different UEs

PN
3
PN
4

PN
5
PN
6

PN
1

PN
1

Cell Site 1 transmits using PN code 1
PN
2
PN
2

Cell Site 2 transmits using PN code 2
Concept of orthogonal code
Orthogonal
the result of multiplying
and sum is 0
Code1
+1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1
Code2
-1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1
Mul
-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1
Sum
0
Orthogonal
Code1
+1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1
Code2
+1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1
Mul
+1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1
Sum
-2
Non-orthogonal
Why CDMA system is a self interference system?
Since all the users use orthogonal code, where does the
self interference come from?
Comes from the code error during the transfer.
If there are some code error on one users information,
it misses some orthogonal to others. Then interference
comes.
Air Interface
2
ch
c
3
ch
c
1
ch
c
scrambling
c
Modulation
Spreading code & scrambling code
Code channelspread code
Relative to service rateextended to 3.84Mchips/s
A kind of orthogonal code
Code scramblingscrambling code
Have no effect on signal bandwidth
Downlink for identifier celluplink identifier terminal
A pseudo-random sequence
Modulation Methods in UMTS
BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) in Uplink channles
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) in Downlink channels
16QAM (16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) in HSDPA
Coverage/capacity VS Data Rate
Higher data rate needs higher power
High data rate transmission is only available nearby the station
>12.2 kbps
>64 kbps
>384 kbps
>144 kbps
Coverage decrease
Subscriber
num
increase
Cell breathing is
one of the means
for load control
The purpose of cell breathing is to share the load of hot-
spot cell with the light loaded neighbor cells, therefore to
improve the utilization of system capacity.
Cell Breathing Effect
Example for load control
Cell Breathing Effect
With the increase of activated
terminals and the increase of high
speed services, interference will
increase.
The cell coverage area will shrink.
Coverage blind spot occurs
Drop of call will happen at the edge
of cell
Coverage and
capacity are
interrelated
Active Set:
The set of radio links simultaneously involved in the communication between a UE and
a NodeB is called ActiveSet. Up to three radio links can be included in the active set. In
addition to measuring and evaluating the radio links (or cells) in the active set, the UE also
continuously monitors and evaluates the signals from other surrounding cells.


The Monitored Set are together with the active set the cells that
the WCDMA RAN explicitly orders the UE to measure on, which normally are the defined
neighbors to the cells in the active set


The Detected Set contains all cells that the UE detects that are not part of the active or
monitored sets
Radio Measurements
Radio Measurements
Power Control on Common Channels
Common Transport Channel Setup Downlink

AICH
This Channel carries the AI Response to the PRACH Preambles.
Its power, aichPower is expressed as an offset relative to PCPICH.

SCCPCH Carrying FACH
maxFach1Power determines power if the FACH Carries a logical control channel like
BCCH, CCCH or DCCH
maxFach2Power determines the power the FACH Carries a logical traffic channel
(DTCH)
SCCPCH Carrying PCH
pchPower is the parameter that sets power for this channel.

PICH
This channel carries the paging indicators.
pichPower is the parameter that sets power for this channel.

All the channels above are having fixed power that are configurable through
parameters.