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Movement of

substances across
the plasma
membrane
Chapter 3
Many biochemical reactions take
place in a cell.
The cells require many substances
to carry out these biochemical
reaction.
Waste products that are formed
during biochemical reactions within
the cells must be eliminated because
they are poisonous.
There is movement of substances across
the plasma membrane so that the cell can
Obtain nutrients and gases
Excrete metabolic wastes
Maintain a suitable pH and
ionic concentration with the
cell for enzyme activity
Red Blood Cell Near Some Body cell
Moving in Moving out
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Photosyntesising Plant Cell
Moving in Moving out
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Water
Glucose
Plant Cell With No Chloroplast
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Glucose
Water
Moving in Moving out
Liver cell
Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Glucose
Water
Amino acids
Urea
Moving in Moving out
The structure of the plasma membrane
The plasma
membrane has 3
components
1. Double layer of
phospholipids
molecules.
2. Pore
3. Carrier Proteins

A phospholipid molecule
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tails
Phospholipid
bilayer
Outside of cell
Inside of cell
P
h
o
s
p
h
o
l
i
p
i
d

l
a
y
e
r

The phospholipids bilayer, proteins and other
parts are not rigid or static, but form a dynamic
and flexible structure.

The protein molecules float about in the
phospholipid bilayer to form a mosaic pattern
that is always changing like fluid.

Singer and Nicolson call it fluid-mosaic model
The plasma membrane is generally described as
semi-permeable or selectively permeable because
it only lets certain substances through.
Fat soluble molecules and small
molecules such as oxygen are
able to pass through unaided.
Water soluble substances such as
glucose and amino acids and ions need
to aided by carrier protein.
Water molecules can move across
plasma membrane.
Which of these substances can pass
through phospholipids layer or carrier
protein?
Na
+

Sodium
ion
K
+

Potassium
ion
Carrier
Protein
Channel
Protein
Movement Of Substances Across
The Plasma Membrane
Passive transport Active transport
Simple
diffusion
Facilitated
diffusion
Osmosis
The differences between PT and AT
Does not require
energy
Substances move
with concentration
gradient
Will continue until
an equilibrium is
reached
Require energy
from cell respiration
Substances move
against concentration
gradient
Process leads to
accumulation or
elimination of the
substance from the cell
Passive Transport Active Transport