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Maslow’ s Hierarchy of Needs


Theory
• There is a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social,
esteem, and self-actualization.
• As each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes
dominant.
• Lower-Order Needs - Needs that are satisfied externally;
physiological and safety needs.
• Higher-Order Needs - Needs that are satisfied internally; social,
esteem, and self-actualization needs.
• Although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied
need no longer motivates.
• So if you want to motivate someone , understand what level of
needs hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying
needs at or above that level.
• Physiological Needs – Hunger, thirst, shelter, relief from pain, and other
bodily needs. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and
instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until
these physiological needs are met.
• Safety Needs – Security and protection from physical and bodily harm.
Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health
insurance, safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment.
• Social Needs - These include needs for belonging, acceptance, love and
affection. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological
and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments
and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance, as does
involvement in social, community or religious groups.
• Esteem Needs - After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs
becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect
on self-esteem, personal worth, status, recognition and accomplishment.
• Self-actualizing Needs - This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of
needs. The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Includes growth,
achieving one’s potential, and self fulfillment.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self

Esteem

Social

Safety

Physiological
Maslows Need theory at Work -
Potential Means of Fulfillment at Work
• Physiological Needs – Basic pay, comfortable work
environment, temperature, water, cafeteria.
• Safety Needs – Job security, benefits like medical
insurance, life insurance, working in a hazard free
environment and safety regulations.
• Social and Belongingness Needs – Supportive
coworkers , peers, supervisors. Being in groups that
are compatible.
• Esteem Needs – Important projects, recognition,
awards, promotions.
• Self Actualization Needs – Challenging projects,
developing and mentoring others, opportunities for
innovation and creativity , etc.
McGregor’s Theory X and
Theory Y
Theory X Workers Theory Y Workers
• Dislike work • View work as
natural
• Must be threatened
with punishment • Self-directed
• Avoid • Exercise self-
responsibilities control
• Seek formal • Accept
direction responsibility
• Require security • Seek responsibility
• Little ambition • Make innovative
decisions