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The Basics of Beer

Food & Beverage

Beer is a fermented
alcoholic beverage made
from malted Barley,
water and hops
History of Beer:
Historians believe prehistoric man made
beer before learning to make bread. Beer
has been referred to as liquid bread.
4300 BC. - Babylonian clay tablets
included recipes for making beer. Beer
had become then, as it is today, a vital part
of civilization.
America produces over 20% of the
worlds production of beer products.
How many gallons of beer does the
average American consume in one year?.
20 Gallons
Hops Water Yeast Malt Other Grains
Malt is sprouted barley. Barley is soaked in
water to begin the process of germination, then
dried and toasted for flavor.
Malting produces an enzyme, diastase, which
turns starch into sugar.

The most important and most publicized ingredient.
Water makes up 8595% of the volume of beer.
Most crucial and
carefully selected
Fermentation bi-products
can affect the character
of beer.

Primary flavoring ingredient.
The spice of beer.
Contributes to the overall character.
Serves as a natural preservative.

Other Grains
Adjunct grains barley, rice, corn wheat.
Rice is widely used in American beer to
create lighter flavor.
Lagering Brewing
Barley malt is ground and hot water added.
Diastase in the malt converts starch into sugar. Corn
or rice is often added for flavor and stability.
The mash is then cooked at a low temperature for
up to six hours to extract as much sugar as possible
from the grain.
The resulting sweet liquid, called wort, is strained
for brewing.
The wort is transferred to a brew kettle, where it is boiled with
hops for approximately two hours to achieve desired flavor and
The hops are removed and the flavored wort is strained,
chilled, and pumped into the fermentation tank.
The decision to make it an ale or lager is made.
The addition of yeast to the wort converts sugars into alcohol and
carbon dioxide.
Fermentation time is one - two weeks or more.
Carbon dioxide is trapped in the beer by fermenting the wort under
Ales - Top Fermented; yeast stays on top.
Lagers - Bottom Fermented; yeast falls to the bottom.
Lagering is the storing and conditioning stage.
Matures and ripens the beer, mellowing its flavor.
After storage, the beer is pasteurized or filtered, and then kegged,
bottled or canned.
12 oz. Bottles: 24 bottles to a case, loose or four six-packs.
12 oz. Cans: 24 or 30 cans to a case.
Keg (half barrel) - 15.5 gallons
Half Keg (pony keg) - 7.75 gallons
Pasteurization: Kills any leftover yeasts, thereby maintaining the
proper flavor and alcohol level.
Genuine Draft: Uses a superfine filter; not pasteurized.
Two main classifications of beer are the result of
Strain of yeast and Fermentation method
Fermented at 37 49
Yeast sinks to the bottom for bottom
Beer is stored (lagered) and aged for
several weeks or months.
Best stored at 40 45
Pale in color
Lighter in taste
Lower in alcohol
Fermented at 50 70
Top fermented with a strain of yeast
that floats on the surface
Best stored at 40 45
Darker in color
Higher in alcohol
Fuller body taste
More distinctive flavor
Light Lager: Pale color, soft, dry taste (Bud
Light, Miller Lite; 3.2- 4%)
Pilsner: Light color, stronger hops, dry taste
(St. Pauli Girl, Pilsner Urquell, & most
American beers are Pilsner style; 3.2 4.5%)
Dark Lager: Dark color, full body and sweet,
slight hops taste (Becks Dark, Heineken Dark;
3.2 4.5%)
Bock Beer: Dark, slightly sweet, malt flavor,
more hops taste (Michelob Amber Bock; 6
Dry, Ice Beer: Smooth taste, little aftertaste
(Bud, Molson Ice; 5.5% alcohol).
Malt Liquor: Cheaper version of lager beer,
higher alcohol content (Colt 45; 5.5 - 6%).
Steam Beer: Deep brown color, aromatic
fragrance, tangy bitter taste with a dry finish
(Anchor Steam; 4 5%).
Bitter Ale: Copper color, heavily hopped (Bass Ale)
Stout: Dark, almost black, full bodied, rich, malt,
strong taste (Guinness Stout) (up to 3.5%)
Porter: Dark, malt, slightly sweet, less hops flavor
(Yuenglings) (5%)
Wheat Beer: Cloudy if unfiltered, complex taste, and
unique spicy flavor (Sam Adams; 4 5%)
Scottish Ale: Cloudy, strong, higher alcohol, slight
smoke flavor from peat fires
(Harplager; 4 5%)
Pale Ale: Cloudy, hops flavor (Sierra Nevada; 4 5%)
Non Alcoholic: Required by law to be called
malted beverage, generally contain < .5 % ABV
(Kaliber, ODouls).
Hybrid Beers: mixed styles of beer, fall into the
following categories: fruit & vegetable, herb &
spice, wood aged, smoked (Petes Strawberry
Blonde Ale).
Malt Beverages: flavored beverage prepared
from malted grains to which natural or artificial
flavors have been added (Mikes Hard Lemonade,
Smirnoff Ice).
FIFO: First in, first out. Rotation is critical. Born-on Date

Canned and bottled beer
Dry storage: 70 ~ Refrigerated storage: 40 ~ Draft Beer: 36- 38
Effects of Light
Natural Spoiled beer (skunk beer)
Skunking has nothing to do with temperature, oxidation, or
bacterial infection, though all of these can spoil beer as well.
Dry storage & Draft sweep, mop, free of debris.
Lines should be cleaned every 2 weeks.
Canned, Bottled, & Draft
Glassware should be spotless.
Tilt glass at a 45-degree angle. Pour beer into
the glass. Straighten glass as pouring.
Head should be no more than one-inch.
Small breweries appeal to beer enthusiasts who
seek a high quality, local product, with diversity.

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Food & Beverage
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