= +
2
2
+
3
3
=1
+
Definition of TEAM for this
course
A team is a small group of people with
complementary skills who are committed to
a common purpose, performance goals, and
approach for which they hold themselves
mutually accountable.
Team Stages
How can we manage this
process?
Everyone can take a leadership
role in the team to help manage
the stages
Five Issues to Consider when
Building an Effective Team
Interdependence
Goal Specification
Cohesiveness
Communication
Roles and Norms
Effective teamwork involves
Develops a Code of Cooperation;
uses of roles;
uses checks for understanding to make sure
everybody is on the same page;
uses effective listening skills;
give and take effective constructive feedback;
Team Administrative Roles
Key team administrative roles include:
Meeting Coordinator;
Recorder;
Timekeeper;
Encourager / Gatekeeper;
Devils Advocate.
Roles should rotate among team members.
Engineering Problem Presentation
(Since Engineers solve Problems and we teach techniques
to solve problems, you should expect to see problems
requiring you to use this format in every ENGR 111 and 112
exam and a variety of homework assignment)
One characteristic of engineers is their ability to present
information with great clarity in a neat, careful manner.
1. Problem statement, which includes any necessary diagram (where
applicable).
Given what facts are actually given as part of the problem, including
appropriate units.
Find what is it that you are going to solve and what are the appropriate
units.
2 & 3 Models (Theory in Edie)
Representation (graphical, sketch, or list data)
Theory or model (computational to determine quantity)
4. Assumptions (about the context and the models)
5. Solution Steps
6. Identify Results, Verify Accuracy and Validate (use alternate model)
7. Discussion/Conclusion (dont repeat the solution.
what do the results mean? How good are they? )
Problem areas
on last test are
in red. Review
your text!!
What is Engineering Design?
Engineering design is a systematic, intelligent
process in which designers generate, evaluate, and
specify concepts for device, system, or processes
whose form and function achieve clients objectives
or users needs while satisfying a specified set of
constraints.
23
Dym, 2005
This definition promotes engineering design as a thoughtful process that
depends on the systematic, intelligent generation of design concepts and
the specifications that make it possible to realize.
Engineering Design: A Process
(Textbook)
Define the problem to be solved
Acquire and assemble pertinent data
Identify solutions constraints and criteria
Develop alternative solutions
Select a solution based on analysis of alternatives
Communicate results
Defining design problems
Who is the client?
What are their needs?
Who are the stakeholders?
What is the context
What are their unique needs?
How should the system perform?
What is the criteria for success?
That is, what indicators (evidence) will you capture to
know if you have met the needs?
Example
1:
Clothes
washing
device
Loosen dirt
Separate
dirt
Remove dirt
Remove
water
Dirty
Clothes
Water Detergent Water
Water
Dirty
Water
Damp,
Clean
Clothes
Washing
Machine
Detergent Clean clothes
Dirty clothes
Water
Dirty water
Energy
If we use our imagination we could define a number of different
ways to accomplish each of these functions Later we will explore
ways to manage this innovative thinking
Free Body Diagram
Note: words in the
FBD are verbs or
actions. Not nouns
Exercise: Toaster
As a Team,
Name several stakeholders of this
device.
What are their needs? (what is wanted?)
What are the technical requirements
you would define to meet these needs?
(how will you know you have achieved
the what?)
What are potential targets of these
requirements?
Generate a FBD identifying the major
functions needed to safely brown bread
to varying levels of brown-ness.
To help with the FBD process, think of the actions the toaster will do: (inserts
bread, heats toast, determines level of brown-ness, ejects toast. Super models
could have as actions cleans itself. Each of these would be one element of the
FBD, describing actions the toaster performs)
Needs and requirement
Customer Needs Requirement Target
Environmentally
friendly
Low energy
consumption
<50 watts per
slice of toast
Multi-use in
terms of size of
bread/type
Need more
information
Safe Need more
information
Light weight Weight of
assembly
<.25 lbs
Attractive Number of Colors 4
Stakeholders:
Consumer (elderly, mid-age, youngsters)
Retailers
Manufactures
Shippers
Climbing belt: Technical
Requirement:
Type Client Needs Rank Technical Requirement Units
P
h
y
s
i
c
a
l
Lightweight 3 Weight Grams
Fits over different
cloths
1 # Buckles count
H
u
m
a
n
F
a
c
t
o
r
s
Comfortable while
hanging
5 Padding Thickness mm
Accessible gear loops 3 # of gear loops count
Does not restrict
movement
5 Padding Thickness mm
Easy to put on 2 # Buckles count
Attractive 2 # of colors count
Reliability
Safe 5 Webbing Strength
(Industry Standards)
N
Comparison Table
Customer
Needs
Tech
Req
Weight/
Importance
iPhone
Blackberry
Pearl
Samsung
Omnia
Motorola
Razor
Cost Cost 15 $160
6.5
$500
3.7
$189
4.2
$30
15
Clock Alarm
Clock
5 Yes
5
Yes
5
Yes
5
No
0
Band Size
(Tri or Quad
Band
Size
10 Quad
10
Quad
10
n/a
0
Tri
5
Cool Touch
screen
10 Yes
10
Yes
10
No
0
No
0
Operation Minutes 10 50/10
5
50/15
3.3
50/5
10
50/10
5
36.5 32 19.2 25
15
30
500
15
30
160
15
30
189
15
30
30
Exam 1: Autonomous Patio Power
Washer
Example only for one possible design; other designs would be different
Pressurize
Water
Sense Patio
Shape
Move
Sprayer
Spray water
Dirty Patio
Water
Human input?
Detergent?
Dirty water
Clean Patio
Computer?
Automatic?
Functional Blocks indicate WHAT
needs to be done in your design.
Verbs or verb phrases not Nouns
Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy
Your own design would have made choices where the ? are noted.
Morphological Charts
After the FBD is developed, and the engineering
requirements and engineering targets have been
developed, move to the morphological chart
development.
FBD lists What needs to be done; the Morphological
Chart makes a list of the possible How it can be done.
Autonomous Patio Washer: Consider the Sensor
Function.
Possible Hows could be GPS, Edge/wall sensor technology,
Preprogrammed corner points, laser measurements.
Once Hows are developed for every block in the FBD,
then for your design, select a How for each function.
Can these Hows meet the Technical Requirements and
Specifications?
Developing a design for a New Shop
Vac
A client has asked your team to help with the design for
a new shop vac. After a review of the various models
on the market, they have closely looked at two
benchmarks. The Fein model offers superior
performance, great cleaning power, very effective at
trapping dust, and is very quiet. But it is expensive,
heavy, hard to clean, and difficult to move in a working
environment. At the other end are the Craftsman shop
vacs. These are great value for the cost, about 1/3 the
price of the Fein, easy to maneuver, and lighter weight.
They are noisy though, and offer less power. They are
still difficult to clean.
New Shop Vac
The client believes there is an opportunity to develop a
quieter, mid-priced shop vac, that is easy to maneuver, easy
to clean, can use Craftsman accessories and standard hoses,
lighter weight than the Fein product, and very good at
removing dirt.
Create a Functional Block Diagram
Who are the stake holders
Do each stakeholder have the same needs
Other possible needs?
Translate these needs into Technical Requirements
For each technical requirement, develop a specification
target that you wish the design to obtain.
Selected Client Needs Technical Requirements Target Values
1)Oil capacity to cook a chicken Oil Volume 2 qts (or some defined volume)
2)Oil pot for dishwasher washing Dishwasher safe baskets Pass in dishwasher test
3)Low oil spatter Pass oil spatter test <1 oz spatter per 15 min cook
cycle (or something to reflect a
test)
4)Two baskets Number of baskets 2
5)Metal sides get hot Max temp requirement for sides <200 F
6)Child can reach handles Child safe fryer Handles inaccessible to children
7)Fryer smells Odor containment Pass odor test
8) auto-shut off Timed operations Autoshut off after 2 hrs
9) maintains temperature Constant temperature Deviation < +/- 5F over 4 hrs (or
some data to reflect a test
requirement)
10) improved styling Number of colors
Or Consumer evaluation review
4
Average rating >7 out of 10
Developing a House of Quality
HoQ is a great way to
organize data. But it is much
more than that.
Completion of the HoQ forces
you to stretch your thinking,
to test your design against
other designs, to weigh
options against each other, to
prioritize items, to
understand the problem, and
basically develop a better
product
Technical
requirements
Technical
specifications
Competitors
products
Comparing effects of
Hows on each other
Evaluate and
rank
competitive
products
Work Break Down Structure
Similar to a systems chart a
representation of the WBS illustrates the
major actions to achieve and the
relationship between these actions.
Boil Soup
1 35
To determine the Critical Path
Boil Soup
1 35
Boil Rice
2 30
Brown
Chicken
3 15
Open Wine
4 5
Eat Soup
5 15
Boil Peas
6 15
Prepare
Sauce
7 5
Wine Breaths
8 30
Bake Chicken
Rice & Sauce
9 15
Eat Entree
10 25
Process ID
Time Duration
Measurements: Accuracy and
Precision
The words Accuracy and Precision have different
meaning for engineers
Accuracy: Relative nearness to the correct or true value
Precision: Repeatability of measurement regardless of accuracy
For instrumentation, in general terms . . .
Accuracy associated with calibration
Precision associated with the design of the device and the experience
of the user
Measurements: Accuracy and
Precision
Neither Accurate
Nor Precise
Somewhat Accurate
But Not Precise
Precise But Not
Accurate
Both Accurate
And Precise
Systematic Errors
Systematic Errors errors that can be
attributed to some regular outside
occurrence.
Engineers must be aware of the presence of
systematic errors and eliminate those possible
and try to quantify and correct for those
remaining.
The error associated with systematic errors can be
corrected if the source and magnitude are known.
Repeating measurements will not eliminate or
reduce systematic errors.
Random Errors
Accidental (Random) Errors errors that occur
in a random nature.
The presence of accidental errors is evident by the
scatter in measured data.
It is impossible to predict the magnitude and sign
of the accidental error present in any one
measurement.
Repeating measurements and averaging the
results will reduce the random error in the
average.
What type of error is:
The produce scale at the grocery store has water on
it. (The water runs off the produce)
The timekeeper sneezes at the moment the runners
cross the finish line.
Gasoline sloshed from your tank prior to the pump
shutting off (mpg calculation).
Measuring with a 100-ft tape that is actually 99.01 ft.
Press the wrong key(s) on a calculator during a long
calculation.
I always get a ticket for speeding on Highway 6
headed to Houston. My speedometer says 68 mph
but the cop says I was going 76 mph
Measurements: Significant
Digits
There are very rigorous methods for estimating and
reporting the uncertainty in physical measurements
The use of significant digits in the reported data is
one way of indicating the level of uncertainty in the
measurements to the persons using the data
Rules for reporting numbers (Section 6.3 textbook)
Use leading zeroes ( 0.345 NOT .345 )
Use spaces not commas ( 4 567.8 NOT 4,567.8 )
Use scientific notation with prefix names for units
( 4.782 X 10
12
Tflops/s NOT 478 200 000 000 000 flops/s )
Measurements: Significant
Digits
A significant digit in a written number is defined as
any written digit except . . .
Those zeroes used only for location of the decimal point
Those zeroes that do not have any nonzero digit on their
left
Example: 0.0015 has two significant digits (Why?)
Example: 0.00150 has three significant digits
(Why?)
Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Rounding: When rounding to the proper number of
significant figures, increase the last digit by one (1) if
the figure to the right that was dropped is five (5) or
greater.
Example: 23.650 rounds to 23.7 for three SF
Example: 4.537 rounds to 4.5 for two SF
You must decide ahead of time how many significant
figures are required
This is not a multi-step process- do it once
Example: Rounding 827.48 to three SF gives 827
But, rounding to four SF first yields 827.5
Then, rounding to three SF yields 828: different answer
Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Multiplication and Division: In general, the product
or quotient of two numbers should contain the
same number of significant digits as are contained
in the number with the fewest significant digits.
Exact Numbers effectively have infinite number of
significant digits
Therefore, they will never be the limiting factor in
determining the number of significant digits of the result
Example: (13.256 inches) X (2.54 cm/in)
From calculator: 33.67024 cm
Express answer as 33.670 cm five SF not three
Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Multiplication and Division: In general, the product
or quotient of two numbers should contain the
same number of significant digits as are contained
in the number with the fewest significant digits.
Exact Numbers effectively have infinite number of
significant digits
Therefore, they will never be the limiting factor in
determining the number of significant digits of the result
Example: (13.256 inches) X (2.54 cm/in)
From calculator: 33.67024 cm
Express answer as 33.670 cm five SF not three
Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Addition and Subtraction: In general, the result should
show significant digits only as far to the right as is seen
in the least precise number in the calculation.
Combined Operations: In general, perform
multiplication/division first and set the correct number
of SFs in the intermediate answer. Then, perform
addition/subtraction an round to the proper number of
SFs.
Please Note: When using calculators or computers, it is
normal and reasonable to skip the intermediate steps.
Keep all digits until the final answer is obtained. Then,
round the answer to get the proper number of SFs
Rules for Significant Digits
In multiplication and division - use as many
significant digits as the number that has the fewest
(excluding exact conversion factors)
(4.00 kg) (4 m/s
2
) = 20 kg m/s
2
Why not 16 kg m/s
2
In addition and subtraction - line up the decimals
and retain the least significant place.
897.0
- 0.0922
896.9078
896.9 (Answer)
Exact Conversions and Formulas
The number of significant digits in a final answer is not
affected by the number of digits in an exact conversion
factor or formula.
Examples:
The exact conversion factor 12 in/ft is equivalent to 12.0000in/ft
The formula:
is equivalent to
4
2
d
Area
4.00000...
d * 3.14159...
Area
2
1
a
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
x x x x x
x y x y x y x y x y
(X
1
,Y
1
)
(X
2
,Y
2
)
(X
3
,Y
3
)
(X
4
,Y
4
)
(X
5
,Y
5
)
1
1
2
1
n
i i
i
n
i
i
y x
a
x
where
Try this using our Excel spreadsheet with data
from Tensile testing f (X) = a
1
X
Youll need a column for
Youll need a column for
1
1
2
1
n
i i
i
n
i
i
y x
a
x
1
n
i i
i
y x
2
1
n
i
i
x