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Final Exam Review

My thoughts on what to review but you are

responsible for all the learning objectives
Announcements
Project 3
Demo Tuesday night
Oral Presentations (10 minutes) Wednesday
Final Report due Tuesday April 29
th
by 11:59 (no exceptions)
PICA Instructor Evaluation
Pica.tamu.edu or through HOWDY
Course Evaluation submission to open later this week
CCCD extra credit due by this Friday
Class on Monday 4/28? Not scheduled. Another
review?
RAT 14.1 12 points
The method of least squares minimizes the sum of the square of
the residuals. (4 points)
What is the residual?
Why do we use the sum of the squares of the residuals
versus the sum of the residuals?

Write the equation used to calculate the sum of the square of the
residuals. (4 points)

If given 3 possible equations, how would you determine which
one gives the better fit? (2 points)

Will the method of least squares work on non-linear functions?
(2 points)

2
2
1 1
( ) ( )
n n
i i i
i i
e f x y

Residual is actually residual error, which is the difference
between the calculated value f(x) and the observed data
point Y
i
.

Use the squares of the residuals, to avoid effects where some
residuals are positive and others are negative, so the
differences will cancel each other
The equation with the lowest sum of the squares of the
residuals gives the best fit

The method of least squares, will work on any equation .
Expectation is that every learning objective needs
to be tested.
Could be in a RAT, CFU, Homework, Project, Exam
Updated Learning objectives for Exam 1 is in eCampus
In principle, if it is a learning objective, it could be on the
exam
Learning Objectives
A. Syllabus
B. Intro to Engineering
C. Ethics
D. Flowcharting
E. Team Skills
F. Systems Thinking
G. Process/Project management
H. Structured Engineering Problem Solving

Learning Objectives Continued
I. Engineering Design
J. Estimation and Measurements
K/L. Sketching and Orthographics and Pictorials
M. Modeling Data (MSP and Least Squares)
N. LabView
O. Matlab 1, 2, 3, 4
My expectations for the exam no
guarantees
(note: the exam is not yet prepared)
Expect significant emphasis on Matlab, maybe 20% of the exam
Expect a question on Labview programming
Drawings: pictorials, missing lines, choose the right view, order of lines. This was to
be covered in two lectures since the last exam, so probably more emphasis than
Least Square (subject of 1 lecture)
Modeling. Questions on both MSP and Least Squares
Graphs (include semi log and log log), equations (linear, exponential, power)
Least squares: minimization of error or special case least squares (where a
0
= 0). Know this
formula
Probably will not need to memorize the complex formula for least squares solving for a
1
and a
0

in Y = a
1
X + a
0
but you may need to know how to use it, if given the formula
Regression analysis what does this signify? How to calculate?

Estimation - had something before/ could see it again
Presentation of the solution to a problem (perhaps tied with an estimation or
MSP/Least squares problem) but you could see it again.
Perhaps one more flow chart problem- maybe in combination with Matlab
Ethics.. Always expect something to get you to think
Design process .. From ideas to setting engineering targets and specs to FBD, to
morphological charts to HoQ
House of Quality : names of rooms in HoQ and what they mean and what belongs
Ethics
Why focus on ethics?
This is importance. Expect every exam in 111 and 112
to have an ethics question of some sorts
Ethics..Questions to make you
think \

Would you tell your mother, professor, boss
ethics issue
Exam 2 (5 points) As a new employee you are assigned to an engineering team
working to develop a series of solar powered roadside comfort stations that will
be used in remote areas of the Southwest. The solar system will supply power
for electric lights, emergency phones, water well pump, and warm water (for
hand washing). In a series of extensive interviews with the clients over a period
of several months, your team has developed a comprehensive list of technical
requirements and target specifications. By chance, your best friend (a University
of Texas graduate) is working on the same opportunity at a competing company.
couple of issues of client requirements. You know that the client does not
consider this type of information proprietary, and would share if asked- so you
try to explain the customers requirements to your friend. Is this action ethical
or unethical? Why?
Would you feel comfortable telling your boss or the client that you met
with another company and shared information about what the client
was wanting to develop?
Flowcharting
Necessary skill to help organize thoughts and plans,
in addition to developing software algorithms
Expect every exam in 111 and 112 to have a
flowcharting question.
In reading material, Drawing a structured flowchart
Designing algorithms
algorithm
noun \al-g-ri-thm\

Definition of ALGORITHM
: a procedure for solving a mathematical problem (as of
finding the greatest common divisor) in a finite number of
steps that frequently involves repetition of an operation;
broadly : a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem
or accomplishing some end especially by a computer
- Websters Dictionary

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/algorithm
Three Major Flowchart
Constructs
Structured algorithms and programs are
designed using three basic methods of control:
Sequential: steps are performed in a strictly
sequential manner, each step being executed exactly
once.
Selection (conditional): one of a number of
alternative actions is selected and executed.
Repetition: One or more steps are performed
repeatedly.
Conventional Flowchart
Symbols
Process Type Representation Graphic Symbol
input/output parallelogram
process instruction rectangle
line connectors
indication flow direction
conditional test or
decision
diamond
repetition loop hexagon
connector to another
location
circle
start/stop oval
Three major flowchart structures: Sequential, Conditional, and Repetition
Flow Charting breakdown
Start
Input data
Initialize other variables
Perform actions
Repeat if required
Test to criteria if required
End
=

= +

2
2
+

3
3

=1
+
Definition of TEAM for this
course
A team is a small group of people with
complementary skills who are committed to
a common purpose, performance goals, and
approach for which they hold themselves
mutually accountable.
Team Stages
How can we manage this
process?
role in the team to help manage
the stages
Five Issues to Consider when
Building an Effective Team
Interdependence
Goal Specification
Cohesiveness
Communication
Roles and Norms
Effective teamwork involves
Develops a Code of Cooperation;
uses of roles;
uses checks for understanding to make sure
everybody is on the same page;
uses effective listening skills;
give and take effective constructive feedback;
Meeting Coordinator;
Recorder;
Timekeeper;
Encourager / Gatekeeper;
Roles should rotate among team members.
Engineering Problem Presentation
(Since Engineers solve Problems and we teach techniques
to solve problems, you should expect to see problems
requiring you to use this format in every ENGR 111 and 112
exam and a variety of homework assignment)
One characteristic of engineers is their ability to present
information with great clarity in a neat, careful manner.
1. Problem statement, which includes any necessary diagram (where
applicable).
Given what facts are actually given as part of the problem, including
appropriate units.
Find what is it that you are going to solve and what are the appropriate
units.
2 & 3 Models (Theory in Edie)
Representation (graphical, sketch, or list data)
Theory or model (computational to determine quantity)
4. Assumptions (about the context and the models)
5. Solution Steps
6. Identify Results, Verify Accuracy and Validate (use alternate model)
7. Discussion/Conclusion (dont repeat the solution.
what do the results mean? How good are they? )

Problem areas
on last test are
in red. Review
What is Engineering Design?
Engineering design is a systematic, intelligent
process in which designers generate, evaluate, and
specify concepts for device, system, or processes
whose form and function achieve clients objectives
or users needs while satisfying a specified set of
constraints.
23
Dym, 2005
This definition promotes engineering design as a thoughtful process that
depends on the systematic, intelligent generation of design concepts and
the specifications that make it possible to realize.

Engineering Design: A Process
(Textbook)
Define the problem to be solved
Acquire and assemble pertinent data
Identify solutions constraints and criteria
Develop alternative solutions
Select a solution based on analysis of alternatives
Communicate results
Defining design problems
Who is the client?
What are their needs?
Who are the stakeholders?
What is the context
What are their unique needs?
How should the system perform?
What is the criteria for success?
That is, what indicators (evidence) will you capture to
know if you have met the needs?
Example
1:
Clothes
washing
device
Loosen dirt
Separate
dirt
Remove dirt
Remove
water
Dirty
Clothes
Water Detergent Water
Water
Dirty
Water
Damp,
Clean
Clothes
Washing
Machine

Detergent Clean clothes
Dirty clothes
Water
Dirty water
Energy
If we use our imagination we could define a number of different
ways to accomplish each of these functions Later we will explore
ways to manage this innovative thinking
Free Body Diagram
Note: words in the
FBD are verbs or
actions. Not nouns
Exercise: Toaster
As a Team,
Name several stakeholders of this
device.
What are their needs? (what is wanted?)
What are the technical requirements
you would define to meet these needs?
(how will you know you have achieved
the what?)
What are potential targets of these
requirements?
Generate a FBD identifying the major
functions needed to safely brown bread
to varying levels of brown-ness.

To help with the FBD process, think of the actions the toaster will do: (inserts
bread, heats toast, determines level of brown-ness, ejects toast. Super models
could have as actions cleans itself. Each of these would be one element of the
FBD, describing actions the toaster performs)
Needs and requirement
Customer Needs Requirement Target
Environmentally
friendly
Low energy
consumption
<50 watts per
slice of toast
Multi-use in
terms of size of
Need more
information
Safe Need more
information
Light weight Weight of
assembly
<.25 lbs
Attractive Number of Colors 4
Stakeholders:
Consumer (elderly, mid-age, youngsters)
Retailers
Manufactures
Shippers

Climbing belt: Technical
Requirement:
Type Client Needs Rank Technical Requirement Units
P
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

Lightweight 3 Weight Grams
Fits over different
cloths
1 # Buckles count
H
u
m
a
n

F
a
c
t
o
r
s

Comfortable while
hanging
Accessible gear loops 3 # of gear loops count
Does not restrict
movement
Easy to put on 2 # Buckles count
Attractive 2 # of colors count
Reliability
Safe 5 Webbing Strength
(Industry Standards)
N
Comparison Table
Customer
Needs
Tech
Req
Weight/
Importance
iPhone

Blackberry
Pearl

Samsung
Omnia

Motorola
Razor

Cost Cost 15 \$160

6.5
\$500

3.7
\$189

4.2
\$30

15
Clock Alarm
Clock
5 Yes
5
Yes
5
Yes
5
No
0
Band Size

Band
Size
10
10
n/a
0
Tri
5
Cool Touch
screen

10 Yes
10
Yes
10
No
0
No
0
Operation Minutes 10 50/10
5
50/15
3.3
50/5
10
50/10
5
36.5 32 19.2 25
15
30
500

15
30
160
15
30
189

15
30
30

Exam 1: Autonomous Patio Power
Washer
Example only for one possible design; other designs would be different
Pressurize
Water
Sense Patio
Shape
Move
Sprayer
Spray water
Dirty Patio
Water
Human input?
Detergent?
Dirty water
Clean Patio
Computer?
Automatic?
Functional Blocks indicate WHAT
needs to be done in your design.

Verbs or verb phrases not Nouns
Energy
Energy
Energy
Energy
Your own design would have made choices where the ? are noted.
Morphological Charts
After the FBD is developed, and the engineering
requirements and engineering targets have been
developed, move to the morphological chart
development.
FBD lists What needs to be done; the Morphological
Chart makes a list of the possible How it can be done.
Autonomous Patio Washer: Consider the Sensor
Function.
Possible Hows could be GPS, Edge/wall sensor technology,
Preprogrammed corner points, laser measurements.
Once Hows are developed for every block in the FBD,
then for your design, select a How for each function.
Can these Hows meet the Technical Requirements and
Specifications?
Developing a design for a New Shop
Vac
A client has asked your team to help with the design for
a new shop vac. After a review of the various models
on the market, they have closely looked at two
benchmarks. The Fein model offers superior
performance, great cleaning power, very effective at
trapping dust, and is very quiet. But it is expensive,
heavy, hard to clean, and difficult to move in a working
environment. At the other end are the Craftsman shop
vacs. These are great value for the cost, about 1/3 the
price of the Fein, easy to maneuver, and lighter weight.
They are noisy though, and offer less power. They are
still difficult to clean.
New Shop Vac
The client believes there is an opportunity to develop a
quieter, mid-priced shop vac, that is easy to maneuver, easy
to clean, can use Craftsman accessories and standard hoses,
lighter weight than the Fein product, and very good at
removing dirt.
Create a Functional Block Diagram
Who are the stake holders
Do each stakeholder have the same needs
Other possible needs?
Translate these needs into Technical Requirements
For each technical requirement, develop a specification
target that you wish the design to obtain.
Selected Client Needs Technical Requirements Target Values
1)Oil capacity to cook a chicken Oil Volume 2 qts (or some defined volume)
2)Oil pot for dishwasher washing Dishwasher safe baskets Pass in dishwasher test
3)Low oil spatter Pass oil spatter test <1 oz spatter per 15 min cook
cycle (or something to reflect a
test)
5)Metal sides get hot Max temp requirement for sides <200 F
6)Child can reach handles Child safe fryer Handles inaccessible to children
7)Fryer smells Odor containment Pass odor test
8) auto-shut off Timed operations Autoshut off after 2 hrs
9) maintains temperature Constant temperature Deviation < +/- 5F over 4 hrs (or
some data to reflect a test
requirement)
10) improved styling Number of colors
Or Consumer evaluation review
4
Average rating >7 out of 10
Developing a House of Quality
HoQ is a great way to
organize data. But it is much
more than that.

Completion of the HoQ forces
other designs, to weigh
options against each other, to
prioritize items, to
understand the problem, and
basically develop a better
product
Technical
requirements
Technical
specifications
Competitors
products
Comparing effects of
Hows on each other
Evaluate and
rank
competitive
products
Work Break Down Structure
Similar to a systems chart a
representation of the WBS illustrates the
major actions to achieve and the
relationship between these actions.
Boil Soup
1 35
To determine the Critical Path
Boil Soup
1 35
Boil Rice
2 30
Brown
Chicken
3 15
Open Wine
4 5
Eat Soup
5 15
Boil Peas
6 15
Prepare
Sauce
7 5
Wine Breaths
8 30
Bake Chicken
Rice & Sauce
9 15
Eat Entree
10 25
Process ID
Time Duration
Measurements: Accuracy and
Precision
The words Accuracy and Precision have different
meaning for engineers

Accuracy: Relative nearness to the correct or true value

Precision: Repeatability of measurement regardless of accuracy

For instrumentation, in general terms . . .
Accuracy associated with calibration
Precision associated with the design of the device and the experience
of the user

Measurements: Accuracy and
Precision
Neither Accurate
Nor Precise
Somewhat Accurate
But Not Precise
Precise But Not
Accurate
Both Accurate
And Precise
Systematic Errors
Systematic Errors errors that can be
attributed to some regular outside
occurrence.

Engineers must be aware of the presence of
systematic errors and eliminate those possible
and try to quantify and correct for those
remaining.
The error associated with systematic errors can be
corrected if the source and magnitude are known.

Repeating measurements will not eliminate or
reduce systematic errors.

Random Errors
Accidental (Random) Errors errors that occur
in a random nature.

The presence of accidental errors is evident by the
scatter in measured data.

It is impossible to predict the magnitude and sign
of the accidental error present in any one
measurement.

Repeating measurements and averaging the
results will reduce the random error in the
average.

What type of error is:
The produce scale at the grocery store has water on
it. (The water runs off the produce)
The timekeeper sneezes at the moment the runners
cross the finish line.
Gasoline sloshed from your tank prior to the pump
shutting off (mpg calculation).
Measuring with a 100-ft tape that is actually 99.01 ft.
Press the wrong key(s) on a calculator during a long
calculation.
I always get a ticket for speeding on Highway 6
headed to Houston. My speedometer says 68 mph
but the cop says I was going 76 mph
Measurements: Significant
Digits
There are very rigorous methods for estimating and
reporting the uncertainty in physical measurements
The use of significant digits in the reported data is
one way of indicating the level of uncertainty in the
measurements to the persons using the data

Rules for reporting numbers (Section 6.3 textbook)
Use leading zeroes ( 0.345 NOT .345 )
Use spaces not commas ( 4 567.8 NOT 4,567.8 )
Use scientific notation with prefix names for units
( 4.782 X 10
12
Tflops/s NOT 478 200 000 000 000 flops/s )
Measurements: Significant
Digits
A significant digit in a written number is defined as
any written digit except . . .
Those zeroes used only for location of the decimal point
Those zeroes that do not have any nonzero digit on their
left

Example: 0.0015 has two significant digits (Why?)

Example: 0.00150 has three significant digits
(Why?)

Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Rounding: When rounding to the proper number of
significant figures, increase the last digit by one (1) if
the figure to the right that was dropped is five (5) or
greater.
Example: 23.650 rounds to 23.7 for three SF
Example: 4.537 rounds to 4.5 for two SF
You must decide ahead of time how many significant
figures are required
This is not a multi-step process- do it once
Example: Rounding 827.48 to three SF gives 827
But, rounding to four SF first yields 827.5
Then, rounding to three SF yields 828: different answer

Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Multiplication and Division: In general, the product
or quotient of two numbers should contain the
same number of significant digits as are contained
in the number with the fewest significant digits.
Exact Numbers effectively have infinite number of
significant digits
Therefore, they will never be the limiting factor in
determining the number of significant digits of the result
Example: (13.256 inches) X (2.54 cm/in)
From calculator: 33.67024 cm
Express answer as 33.670 cm five SF not three
Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Multiplication and Division: In general, the product
or quotient of two numbers should contain the
same number of significant digits as are contained
in the number with the fewest significant digits.
Exact Numbers effectively have infinite number of
significant digits
Therefore, they will never be the limiting factor in
determining the number of significant digits of the result
Example: (13.256 inches) X (2.54 cm/in)
From calculator: 33.67024 cm
Express answer as 33.670 cm five SF not three
Arithmetic with Significant
Figures
Addition and Subtraction: In general, the result should
show significant digits only as far to the right as is seen
in the least precise number in the calculation.

Combined Operations: In general, perform
multiplication/division first and set the correct number
of SFs in the intermediate answer. Then, perform
addition/subtraction an round to the proper number of
SFs.
Please Note: When using calculators or computers, it is
normal and reasonable to skip the intermediate steps.
Keep all digits until the final answer is obtained. Then,
round the answer to get the proper number of SFs
Rules for Significant Digits
In multiplication and division - use as many
significant digits as the number that has the fewest
(excluding exact conversion factors)
(4.00 kg) (4 m/s
2
) = 20 kg m/s
2
Why not 16 kg m/s
2

In addition and subtraction - line up the decimals
and retain the least significant place.
897.0
- 0.0922
896.9078

Exact Conversions and Formulas
The number of significant digits in a final answer is not
affected by the number of digits in an exact conversion
factor or formula.

Examples:
The exact conversion factor 12 in/ft is equivalent to 12.0000in/ft

The formula:

is equivalent to
4
2
d
Area

4.00000...
d * 3.14159...
Area
2

6. 11.28 gallons of water is combined with 3.4425 gallons of water.

What is the resulting volume in liters? (hint: 1 gallons = 3.78541 liters
a) 55.7307 b) 55.731 c) 55.73 d) 55.70 e) 55.7

7. The diameter of a tree is 43.541 inches, what is the diameter in cm
(hint:1 inch = exactly 2.54 cm)
a) 110.5941 b) 110.594 c) 110.59 d) 110.6 e) 111

8. A rectangular sea water tank measures 3.386m x 2.84m x
4.5372m. What is its volume in cubic feet? (hint: 1 m 3.2804 ft )

a) 1534.7644 b) 1534.76 c) 1534.7 d) 1534 e) 1530

Significant figures from exam 2
Approximations & Estimations
As a general rule, engineers strive for a high level
of precision, as well as accuracy in their work.
The accuracy and precision of the estimation is
generally a function of:
Context of the decision to be made with the model.
Sizing a part to integrate with another component
Approximate difference between two systems (alternatives).
The cost to obtain the solution.
Time available to obtain a solution.
Cost to obtain data
Approximations & Estimations
Five different approaches to estimations:
1. Simplify the model representing the system of interest
e.g. geometry, major factors governing the behavior
(Project 2). Strategy we use to determine the surface to
volume ratio.
2. Use analogies -
3. Scale up from one to many
5. Extrapolate from samples

Exercise 9.2
Problem Statement: How many bed pillows can fit
in the back of a tractor trailer?
How much can I divide up the volume of the truck by the volume of the pillows?
Exercise 9.1.2 Approach 3:
Scale up from one to many
Problem Statement: How many bed pillows can fit in the back of a
tractor trailer?

Solution: One pillow measures 3 in thick by 16 in wide by 21 in
long. The cargo bed of a tractor trailer measures roughly 8 ft wide
by 10 ft tall by 35 ft long.

Neglect compression of stacked pillow - count and packing
materials - count
REVIEW: Method of Selected Point (MSP)for STRAIGHT LINES
1. Plot or Y versus X for the data set
2. Draw a line that best represents the data
3. Select two values of X (X
1
and X
2)
(the further apart the better)
4. Read corresponding values of Y
1
and Y
2
from the line drawn in step 2
5. Determine the slope of the line a
1
in the equation Y = a
0
+ a
1
X by calculating
the change in Y divided by the change in X, such as below

a
1
= (Y
2
- Y
1
)
(X
2
X
1
)

6. For one of the data points selected in steps 3 & 4, solve for a
0
(Y
2
= a
1
X
2
+ a
0
)

If solving exponential or power equations, adjust the formulas . For example
with the power equation, the graph of Ln Y vs Ln X (or Log Y vs Log X) is linear.As
above select 2 points thensolve for the slope from

a
1
= (LnY
2
- Ln Y
1
)
(LnX
2
LnX
1
)

then solve for Ln a
0
in Ln Y = Ln a
0
+ a
1
Ln X using one of the selected data
points. From Ln a
0
calculate a
0
. Report the equation calculated that best
models the data. Note for exponential equations, only consider Ln Y vs X and
not Log Y vs X, since the form of the equation is Y= a
0
e
a1X
.

Plot Y vs X
Is it
linear?
Is it
linear?
Is it
linear?
START
Input data
set X, Y
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Use MSP, solve
for a
0
and a
1

Use MSP, solve for
a
1
, Ln a
0
, and then a
0

in LnY = a
1
X + Ln a
0

Use MSP, solve for a
1
,
Ln a
0
and then a
0
in
LnY = a
1
LnX + Ln a
0

Report as
Y = a
0
+ a
1
X
Plot LnY vs X
Plot LnY vs LnX
Find another method
Report as
Y = a
0
X
a
1

Report as
Y = a
0
e
a
1
X

Note: Here you can
also plot Log Y vs
Log X
Flow Diagram
Method of Selected Point
Since exponential are in the
form e
x
, should use natural logs
For linear relations between Y and X, the slope of the line is a
1
and the
intercept on the Y axis is a
0,
so the form of the equation is Y = a
0
+ a
1
X
___________________________________________________________
For exponential relationships, you should expect to find a linear
relationship between Ln Y (or Log Y) and X. It is preferred to use Ln Y over
Log Y because of the form of the equation Y = a
0
e
a1X
is preferred over Y =
a
o
10
a1X
. You can do it both ways, but for now lets use natural logs.

For the exponential model, the linear relationship found is
Ln Y = Ln a
0
+ a
1
X where a
1
is the slope of the line and calculated
from two selected points by a
1
= (LnY
2
LnY
1
)/(X
2
X
1
). Ln a
0
is found by
substituting back into the equation. But in the final equation, if you know
Ln a
0
= 0.689 then a
0
= e
0.689
or a
0
= 1.99
________________________________________________________
For the Power equation, you should expect to find a linear relationship
between Ln Y (or Log Y) versus Ln X (or Log X). Here the choice of using
natural log or Log base 10 does not impact the answer : Y = a
0
X
a1.

For the power model, the linear relationship found is Log Y = a
1
Log X + Log
a
0
. The slope of the line for 2 selected points is
a
1
= (Log Y
2
Log Y
1
)/(Log X
2
- Log X
1
). Using one of the points and the
linear equation, solving for Log a
0
you obtain a value. But Note.. This is for
Log a
0.

To find a
0,
it is 10 to the value obtained for Log a
o
. So if Log a
o
=
0.689, then a
0
= 10
0.689
= 4.9
Graphing
Know the definition of Abscissa and Ordinate for graphs
(which one is the X and which one is the Y axis

Know how to prepare Semi log and Log Log graphs . Know
how to interpret the log scales (where is zero?)

Know how to calculate the slope a
1
from a straight line on
linear, semilog, log log plots.

Know how to calculate the intercept a
0

Convert these into the appropriate linear, exponential, and
power equation.

Know how to convert linear lines in log form to the
exponential or power equations
Power equation from Exam 2
12. (5 points) Using MSP on a data set, the
following linear equation is obtained
Log(Y) = 43.74 Log (X) + Log 16

See any similarity to Y = a
1
X + a
0
Recognize
the form of the equation? everything is Log
so it means power equation.

What is the form of the equation when written
in standard format?

Power equation format is a
0
X
a1

How do you know this is a power law equation

Y=___16 X
43.74
_______________________
What about if the question was Ln Y = 43.74 X + Ln 16 ?

Since only Y and the intercept are log (Ln) it is an Exponential equation, Y = 16e
43.74X

Least Square

2
2
1 1
( ) ( )
n n
i i i
i i
e f x y

Minimizes the relationship.. Basically the solution is chosen where
this relationship is minimized .. So the errors between the calculated
values and the observed values are at a minimum

You could be given 3 or 4 possible solutions ( f (X) = a
1
X + a
0
with
different sets of a
1
and a
0
). The one with the minimum (lowest) error
is the better solution.
Using Least Squares to Compare Different Functions
Values of X
V
a
l
u
e
s

o
f

Y
( )
i i i
e f x y
1
( ) f x a x
0 1
( ) f x a a x
Special Case of the Method of Least
Squares
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Y
-
v
a
l
u
e
s
X-values
x a x f
1
) (

1
a
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
x x x x x
x y x y x y x y x y

(X
1
,Y
1
)
(X
2
,Y
2
)
(X
3
,Y
3
)
(X
4
,Y
4
)
(X
5
,Y
5
)
1
1
2
1
n
i i
i
n
i
i
y x
a
x

where
Try this using our Excel spreadsheet with data
from Tensile testing f (X) = a
1
X

Youll need a column for

Youll need a column for

1
1
2
1
n
i i
i
n
i
i
y x
a
x

1
n
i i
i
y x

2
1
n
i
i
x

Derive the slope a

1
for tensile data
using L.S. Method
Strain (m/m) Stress (Mpa) XY X^2
0.0000 0
0.0025 175
0.0050 300
0.0075 375
0.0100 500
SUM
Where a
1
= sum (x
1
y
i
) / sum(x
1
2
)
Least Square works for any
form of
Linear

Exponential

Power Law
1
0
) (
a
x a x f
x a
e a x f
1
0
) (
x a a x f
1 0
) (
( ) f x
Least Squares for Power Law
Functions and other equations
Power Law of the form

Rewrite as

Take the log of both sides

Define new variables

Substitute new variables, calculate sums, squares, etc in
the least squares calculations using these new variable.

Similar approach can be made for exponential equations

1
0
) (
a
x a x f
1
0
a
y a x
0 1
log log log y a a x
* * *
0 0
log log log y y x x a a
1 0
* * * y a x a
Correlations
Positive Correlation- high values of X are associated with high
values of Y
Negative Correlation- High values of X are associated with low
values of Y
Correlation Coefficient R
2
is a number between 0 and 1
Values near 1 show a strong correlation (data lies almost on the
modeled line
Values near 0 show a weak correlation (data does not lie on the
modeled line).. So closer to 1, the better the correlation
If R
2
= .75, then 75% of the variance can be explained by the model
If R
2
= .99, then 99% of the variance can be explained by the model
Calculating R
2

To find R
2
you need data and its best fit to a linear regression.
Calculate the Error Sum of Squares SEE
SSE = (y
i
f (x
1
))
2
Note: this is what is minimized in least squares

Determine the mean value Y . then the total corrected sum of
the squares SST
SST = (y
i
y )
2

Finally, R
2
= 1 - SSE
SST

Back to GPA data (individual
exercise)
H.S. GPA F.Y. GPA f(x) Calcd
Difference
f(x) - yi
Difference
squared
Difference
yi - y(mean)
Difference
squared
1 2.8 2.8
2 2.7 2.8
3 3.1 2.6
4 2.2 2
5 3.3 2.6
6 3.6 3
Sum = SSE= SST=
Average =
F.Y.GPA = 0.5185 H.S.GPA + 1.1037
Correlation
H.S. GPA F.Y. GPA f(x) Calcd
Difference
f(x) - yi
Difference
squared
Difference
yi - y(mean)
Difference
squared
1 2.8 2.8 2.5555 -0.2445 0.05978025 0.166666667 0.02777778
2 2.7 2.8 2.50365 -0.29635 0.08782332 0.166666667 0.02777778
3 3.1 2.6 2.71105 0.11105 0.0123321 -0.03333333 0.00111111
4 2.2 2 2.2444 0.2444 0.05973136 -0.63333333 0.40111111
5 3.3 2.6 2.81475 0.21475 0.04611756 -0.03333333 0.00111111
6 3.6 3 2.9703 -0.0297 0.00088209 0.366666667 0.13444444
Sum = 15.8 SSE= 0.26666669 SST= 0.59333333
Average = 2.633333333
R
2
= 1 SSE/SST or 1 - .2667/.5933 or 0.551
Is this a Good or Poor correlation?
Least Squares Learning Objectives
Review
Know how to derive and apply the least squares
method to the simplified case of equations involving
only one unknown coefficient.
Know how to apply least squares equations to data that
can be plotted linearly (on linear, semilog or loglog
formatted graphs) with nonzero yintercept.
Understand and be able to calculate SSE, SST,
coefficient of determination (r
2
) and correlation
coefficient (r).
Understand and interpret quality of fit for various
values of r or r
2

Drawings..

From a given pictorial drawing, prepare a 3 view orthographic drawing

From a given orthographic drawing, prepare a pictorial view

Know the precedence of lines Visible, Hidden, Center Lines, Construction Lines.
Know how to draw hidden and center lines

Know the difference between an isometric (Pictorial) drawing and an Oblique
(Pictorial Drawing) and perspective drawings.

Know the Classification of Projection techniques (page 42 of text) in drawings

How many views are required in orthographic drawings? A. Depends on the
object- use minimum number necessary to describe the object.

Which view is chosen to be the front view in orthographic drawings? A. The
most descriptive view

Which view is chosen to be the top view? A. If object has an obvious top, it
should be the top view.

Practice pages 318, 319, 321, 323 in the graphics text