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Chemistry

STPM Chapter 7



7.5 Acid-base Titration
Acid-base indicators
Choice of indicator in Acid-base Titration
Acid-base Titration
Definition: a procedure which is used to determine
the concentration of an acid or base.
volume of two solutions that will exactly react with
one another.

HOW? : A known volume of a solution is placed in a
conical flask. The other solution is added from a
burette until there is enough of it to completely react
with the solution originally in the flask.
Acid-base indicator / pH indicator
Definition : a substance which changes colour
according to the pH of the solution (concentration of
H ions).

WHAT? : weak organic acids / weak organic bases

Reason: Weak organic acids or weak organic bases
are only dissociate partially in water with the
condition that the undissociated molecules have a
different colour from their ions.
Example : Phenolphthalein
Based on Le Chateliers principle,
In the presence of acid (low pH value) , equilibrium
shifts to the left.
The indicator is colourless.

In the presence of base (high pH value) , equilibrium
shifts to the right.
The indicator changes to pink.



o organic weak acid
o lose H
+
ions in solution.
o phenolphthalein MOLECULE is colorless
o phenolphthalein ION is pink.
pKIn is the indicator dissociation constant of the indicator.

pH range of an acid-base indicator is usually about pKIn
1 .

HIn + HO HO + In

pH range = pKIn 1

Choice of Indicator in Acid-base Titration
Equivalent point : the point at which the amount (in
moles) of acid and base present exactly neutralises
one another.
Neutralisation is complete.
Both acid and base are not in excess.
Solution consists of salt and water only.

End point : the point at which the indicator changes
colour
A suitable Acid-base indicator should
have
End point is as close to the equivalent point as
possible.

Change colour sharply at the equivalent point.





Example : Titration between HCl and NaOH


NaOH + HCl NaCl + HO


Number of moles of HCl = (0.10 x 25)/1000 = 0.0025 mol

Based on equation, 1 mol of NaOH will react with 1 mol of HCl .
Thus, 0.0025 mol of NaOH will react with 0.0025 mol of HCl.

Volume of NaOH = Volume of HCl = 25.0 cm
CONCLUSION : The equivalent point is reached when 25.0 cm of NaOH has
been added.



0.10 M 0.10 M
25.0 cm
Indicator changes colour
o before equivalent point, volume recorded 25.0 cm .
o after equivalent point, volume recorded 25.0 cm .

FOR ACCURATE RESULTS, WE HAVE TO USE AN INDICATOR THAT CHANGES COLOUR
AT THE EQUIVALENT POINT OF THE TITRATION.
Types of acids or bases used in titration.

1. Strong acid and strong base

2. Strong acid and weak base

3. Strong base and weak acid

4. Weak acid and weak base

Choice of Acid-base indicator depends on
Titration involving a Strong acid and
Strong base
HCl + NaOH NaCl + HO
Both are strong acid and strong base which dissociate
completely in water.
Complete reaction which form neutral salt and water.
1
7
13
pH
Volume of NaOH added
Salts obtained from a strong acid and
strong base do not undergo hydrolysis.

Choose indicator which changes colour
around pH 7

Any indicators whose pH range falls
between 4 and 11 can be used.
Titration involving a Strong acid and
Strong base
Indicator pH range Colour change
Methyl red
(orange)
4.2 - 6.3 Red Yellow
Chlorophenol blue 4.8 - 6.4 Yellow Red
Bromothymol blue 6.0 - 7.6 Yellow Blue
Phenol red 6.8 - 8.4 Yellow - Red
Cresol red 7.2 - 8.8 Yellow Red
Phenolphthalein 8.3 -10.0 Colourless Pink
Use in titration that
is base add into
acid
(y-intercept < pH
7)
Use in titration that
is acid add into
base
(y-intercept > pH
7)
10
4
Titration involving a Strong acid and
Weak base
Chemical equation HCl + NH NHCl
Ionic equation H + NH NH
The equivalent point is LESS THAN pH 7
NH is conjugate acid which undergoes hydrolysis to produce HO , thus making
the solution slightly acidic.
NH + HO NH + HO
Any indicators whose pH range
is between 4 to 7 can be used.
Titration involving a Strong base and
Weak acid
Chemical equation
CHCOOH + NaOH CHCOONa + HO
Ionic equation
CHCOOH + OH CHCOO + HO

The equivalent point is MORE THAN pH 7

CHCOO is conjugate base which undergoes
hydrolysis to produce OH , thus making the
solution slightly basic.

Any indicators whose pH range is between 7
to 10 can be used.
Titration involving a Weak acid and Weak
base
CHCOOH + NH CHCOONH
There is no sharp increase in pH at the equivalent point of the
titration.
There are no suitable indicators for such titration.
The end-point has to be determined by other suitable
methods.

Titration involving a Weak polyprotic
acids/bases
More than one equivalent point on pH graph.
These points correspond to the formation of acidic salts
and normal salts.
Acidic salt can react with base to form normal salt.
More than one indicators can be used in this titration.