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TKT Tutoring Class

Part 1 Describing language and
language skills (Unit 7)
September, 2014
Unit 7 Listening
I. What is listening?
-definition, reasons for listening
II. Key concepts
1. Differences between written and spoken
2. kinds of listening
3. listening principles
4. listening subskills/strategies
III. Classroom implications
I. What is listening?
Listening, one of the four language
skills, is a receptive skill, which
involves responding to language rather
than producing it.
Using context and knowledge of
language and the world, we make
sense of the meaningful sounds of
Listening involves:
- Characteristics of spoken language
- Contextual and world knowledge
- Understanding different text types
- Understanding different speeds of
speech and accents
- Using different listening subskills
Reasons for listening:
a. For communication
b. For pleasure
c. For information
d. For education
II. Key concepts
1. Differences between written and
spoken language (p.30)
Written Language
With punctuation and capital letters
With letters, words, sentences, and punctuation
No visual support
Exact vocabulary and more complex grammar
II. Key concepts
1. Differences between written and spoken
language (p.30)
Spoken language in English
Temporary, varied pace and pauses
With stress and intonation to show meanings
In connected speech, even with incomplete sentences
With body language, such as gestures and facial
No so well-organized; with interruptions, hesitations,
repetitions and frequent changes of topic
General vocabulary and simple grammar
II. Key concepts
2. Kinds of listening

A. Intensive listening/extensive listening
-Intensive listening focuses on
listening skills in the classroom to
study the way English is spoken in.
-Extensive listening is about pleasure
listening outside the classroom
without the teachers intervention
2. Kinds of listening
B. Monologues/dialogues
Monologues: planned (e.g. speeches) or
unplanned (e.g. anecdotes)
dialogues (familiarity) : social/interpersonal
(e.g. parties )or transactional (e.g service

II. Key concepts
3. Listening principles
(Harmer 2, 2007, p.135)
Encourage students to listen as often and
as much as possible.
Help students prepare to listen.
Once may not be enough.
Encourage Ss to respond to the content of a
listening, not just to the language.
Different listening stages demand different
listening tasks
Good teachers exploit listening to the full
II. Key concepts
4. listening subskills/strategies
Listen for gist/general information
Listen for specific information
Listen for detail
III. Classroom implications (p.32)
Let students listen to many sources and
varieties of spoken language
Listening to live speakers is easier than listening
to recordings
Have students listen to both created and
authentic listening texts
Comprehension activities should be easier in
language than the language in the listening text.
Children learn well from listening to stories that
interest them
Develop students listening skills by focusing
regularly on particular aspects of listening, e.g.
problem sounds
Activity pattern in a listening class:
-introductory activities (focus on topic and
language of the text)
-main activities (comprehension activities)
-post-activities (discussion of the topic, personal
opinion about the text)
1. Hadfield.J. & Hardfield, C. (2008).
Introduction to Teaching English.
Oxford University Press.
2. Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). The Practice
of English Language Teaching. Pearson
Education Limited.
3. Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). How to Teach
English. Pearson Education Limited.